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Work-family conflict is a advancing for modern
society, in a huge majority of men and women tells that work interferes with
their family responsibilities (Glavin & Schieman, 2012). Work–family
conflict refers to an ill-assorted or incompatibility between the work and
family role demands. Therefore, the work-family relationship has been creating
as a bi-directional construct where work roles impacts on family roles, work
can reinforce family well-being and positive aspects of family life can fix into
work place. Then, a concept of work-life combination should depict more
flexible boundaries where individuals have greater influence on the definition
of their work and non work lives. The choice of plan is to handle the work-family
conflict is dependent on the recognized differences between the two domains, on
the strength of the borders, which are resolved by their permeability and
flexibility (Saucan et al., 2015).

Work-family conflict collects widespread attention
in modern society beyond human resources management, huge researches in this
area different studies report inconsistent and even contradictory findings on
the effects and intensity of work family conflict. Additionally, the overlap in
time and place between traditional family and work roles may also introduce new
opportunities for work-family conflict to manifest in people’s everyday lives
(Yili Liu & Lina Zhou., 2017).  Work-family conflict is
defined as the pressure produced by different demands from work and family domains,
where the pressure from both work and family domains are ill-matched in some
regard (Restubog et al, 2011).

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 Work-family
conflict is started because of the different work and family demographic trends
in the United States and around the globe, including growing numbers of mothers
with children under 18 in the labor force; the rapid rise in elder care demands
due to an aging population; and an increase in men’s involvement with family
care giving demands, particularly in developed Western countries (Kossek & Malaterre,
2013). Work-family conflict
affects most of the society. Even without married people and those without
children will complain having some work-family conflict as all individuals (Casper,
Weltman, & Kwesiga, 2007). Work-life conflict is a part of work-family
conflict image the reality that the work role may interfere with family’ other
personal life events and interests. With the family role (Kossek, 2016). While
for many employees work-family conflict is a key factor use the term “work-life
conflict” to show the many extra non-work demands in individual’s lives that
are not confined to those involving the family (Wilson & Baumann, 2015). A
real number of work family research based on a conflict situation, where the
demands of work and family are observed as opposed because of conflicts caused
by time, behavior, or strain (Ruppanner, 2013).

In recent years, researchers differently measured
work-family conflict first, it was measured in a simpler way, in which they measuring
the conflict that occurs when work is interfered with family just now,
researchers starts to identify the double nature of work–family conflict by
measuring both possible directions the interference of work with family and
also of family with work (Hytti et al., 2015).

 In other
countries some researchers indicated that work–family conflict could positively
affect turnover intention. Researchers also tell that  there were neither direct nor indirect
relationships between work–family conflict and turnover intention (Armstrong et
al., 2015). Both work and family responsibilities is a problem for many workers
in these days, whether employed or self-employed. Workers have different roles
in the work and family domains. When these roles are mutually incompatible in
some way, a form of inter-role con?ict arises this may take the form of
work-to-family con?ict or family-to-work con?ict (Annink et al., 2016).

Workers especially women and/or
parents often believe that self-employment will ease the pressure of combining
work and family Self-employment enables workers to combine income, ?exibility
and control over their work and childcare (Sullivan and Meek 2012). The
importance of preventing WFC is acknowledged by the European Union, who sets
guidelines for support. However, although governments are giving increasingly
attention to reconciling paid employment and parenting, research shows those
arrangements for the self-employed lag behind those for employees and that they
differ across European countries (Annink et al. 2015). They originate that if
the job demands are high it create conflicts between work and family life and
they are negatively associate to work–life balance. However, they also found
that the level of job control hardly varies among the self-employed. This is
not unpredicted, as job control is related to
individual’s management and performance, which can be seen as inherent to
self-employment (Nordenmark et al. 2012).

 The life-course aspects provide a unique
framework and concepts such as historical time, transitions, or linked lives to
examine work-family conflict. Contemporary workers are less probable to spend
their whole career and regularly advance in one organization, and feel secure
in their jobs than workers from previous decades. Yet they are more likely to
customize their timing of retirement, pursue flexible work arrangements such as
reduced workload and timework, and seek work-family balance (Greenhaus &
Kossek, 2014). One main methodological issue is construct overlap, such as the
work-family conflict and work-life conflict issues noted earlier. Work-family
conflict and work-family balance are also closely comparable concepts. While
there seems to be a agreement between scholars that work-family balance is
distinct from work-family conflict, empirical evidence is scarce (Greenhaus
& Allen, 2010). Neuroticism had the strongest positive relationship with
both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among the big five personality
characteristics. While agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively
associated with work-family conflict, extraversion and openness to experience
were not (Kossek, Ruderman, Braddy, and Hannum 2012).

Work-Family Conflict is an
important line of inquiry in organizational behavior and human resource
management research. The topic is relevant to the computing and communication
field not only because modern communication technologies allow for more
integration of work and family roles than ever before but because recent
advances in computing technology offer new ways to respond to and understand
work-family conflict (Maertz & Boyar 2016). For all peoples work and family
are two important domains, work family conflict is experienced when there is
conflict between pressures in other domain. Work family conflict can be classified
into time- and strain based categories, along with others. Specifically, the
time devoted to and the strain produced by work make it difficult to fulfill
requirements of family and vice versa (Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010).

Work family conflict has been
empirically linked with employees’ job and life dissatisfaction, poor physical
and psychological health, and rising voluntary turnover rates and work stress
(Cheng et al., 2015). While it is obviously of interest to know whether
inter-role conflicts are connected with the health, it is of equal importance
to explore potential antecedents of work and family conflicts in employees with
spinal cord injury and their partners with care giving duty. There is two
speci?c aspects that may have a role in the presence of conflicts, namely the
amount of engagement in productive activities (e.g., paid work, care giving)
and socioeconomic circumstances (e.g., level of income, education) Conflicts
between work and family life probably result from an interplay between one’s
own and one ‘s partners ‘ participation in productive activities. For instance,
the participation of both members of a couple in paid works may exacerbate
inter-role conflicts as both have less time resources for family life (Fekete
et al., 2017). Significant effort has gone toward trying to understand the
antecedents and role of work family conflict.

Research shows individual
attributes and experience effect perception of work family conflict, with two
significant implications for the dynamics of work family conflict. Different
individuals may respond to the same work family conflict differently, and individuals
may react to the same work family conflict differently over time through their
attempts to cope with work family conflict and their changing situations (Carr
et al., 2014). Percentage of working women is increasing in day to day life,
which is turn enhances the responsibility of women in both private and outside
world. So naturally the conflict appears, when they try to balance between work
and family. If these roles are not managed, it starts to work family conflict
which creates stress between employees. Employees try to satisfy the increasing
work role and as well as family responsibilities too. Work family conflict is
related to stress and psychological strain (Poelmans as cited in Ragles, 2016).
Most researches in the area of work family conflict and organizational role
stress is conveying in various group of occupations via students, teachers and
police. Role stress influences the job satisfaction among the employees
(Armstrong et al., 2015).

 

Types
of work-family conflict.   Work
family conflict can exist in two ways work can interfere with family (WIF) and
family can interfere with work (FIW). Carlson et al. (1998) suggested six
dimensions of work-family conflict. WIF and FIW each have three sub dimensions
time, strain, and behavior-based types of conflict. Time-based conflict happens
when the time demands of one role are ill-matched with those of another. The
second form is strain-based conflict, starts when strain in one domain
influence with the other domain. The third form, behavior-based conflict,
happens when behavior pattern allocate to one domain are arrogate in another
(Aisyah et al., 2011).  

 

Time based conflict.   Time
is an important aspect that has been linked with conflict (Greenhaus as cited
in fang, 2017). He reported time-based conflict as numerous roles may challenge
for a person’s time. Time used on activities within one role generally cannot
be faithful to activities within another role. Therefore, in the same time
period an employee cannot satisfy both roles, because they both influencing
each other time-based conflict is stable with excessive work time and schedule
conflict, as well as role overload there is two type of time-based conflict.

First, demands of time linked with
one role’s membership may make it physically impossible to obey with
expectations arising from another, for example an employee might have a lot of
work at workplace or stay late at work for completing a project, therefore that
thing make it physically awkward to spend time with the family (Tang et al,
2015).

Second, time demands may also
create an obsession with one role even if an individual is physically
attempting to meet another role’s demands (Huang et al., 2012). For instance
one employee has a big project to complete and the same time he comes home to
spend time with the family, and just thinking about the project (Matthews et
al., 2011).

 

Strain-based
conflict.   A
second type of work-family conflict happens when the strain from one domain
becomes incompatible to safe the requirements of another domain. Strain may
decrease personal resources that are needed for role responsibilities, for
instance when there is fatigue of work experiencing by a person, because of
long working hours may he shift that to the family domain and reduce his/her
energy for family responsibilities (Ragles & Sakthivel, 2016). Strain that
we practice in one role may span and starts to influence with other role for
example if one become stressed of having child which is sick, it affects the
attentiveness level at work place. If one practice occupational role conflict,
role ambiguity at work and overloaded of work then he may face work stress at
work place (Cowlishaw et al., 2012).

 

Behavior based
conflict.  
Behavior based conflict is a third type of work-family conflict. It is
start when person can’t balance behavior in order to meet the demands of two
different role behaviors. That is true that behavior in one domain influence
the performance in other domain. An immediate form of this conflict is when a
person has difficulty in combining a logical and managerial attitude at work
with a sensitive and shared attitude with the family (Frone, 2005). According
to Bellavia and Frone, (2005), males are high on facing work-family conflict
then females, while females are high on facing Family-to-work conflict then
males. There is difference between energy-base and strain-base conflict.

Theories
of work-family conflict.   Numerous
theories have been used to explain the process that how work-family conflict
linked to other variables. Grant-Vallone and Donaldson (2001) stated express
that research that examines work family conflict has advanced over the last
decade by the development of theoretical models, empirical studies, and
organizational sponsored work-family initiatives.

Role conflict theory.   The
role conflict theory states that experiencing doubtfulness or conflict within a
role will result in an undesirable state. Because conflicting demands between
roles (e.g., time, incompatible behaviors) conduct to personal conflict, it
becomes harder to perform each role successfully (Grandey & Cropanzano as
cited in Ashley, 2017).  “Role strain or
trouble in meeting role demands is assured” and a person “must frequently makes
role decisions and agreements in order to meet role requirement. Although some authors have used role
conflict theory and role theory as evidently replaceable frameworks, there are
definite differences between them. The role conflict theory outlines a deeper
and more specific framework that provides a richer understanding of various
work-family conflict forms, directions, and dimensions; these details are not
presented in other theoretical frameworks. In addition, researchers (e.g.,
Duxbury, Higgins, & Mills, 1992). Claimed that to understand work-family
conflict both directions (work interference with family and family interference
with work) must be examine.

 

Spillover theory.   Spillover
theory describes work effect in family life. Positive spillover is declared
when the fulfillment, passion, happiness, and refreshment an individual has at
work crosses over into positive feelings and energy at home or when positive
satisfaction, energy, and happiness from home crosses over to a positive
experience at work (Sthapit & Bjork, 2017). Negative spillover from work to
family is express when the problems, conflicts, or energy at work has tense and
engaged an individual, making it difficult to participate in family life
effectively and positively (Young & Rim, 2017). Of course, negative
spillover from family to work (e.g., divorce, problems with children, or the
death of a close friend or family member) can also be damaging.

Gender role theories.  This
theory find to explain gender differences in work family life. Three of the
familiar gender theories that represent three different sets of assumptions are
the biological influences, childhood socialization processes, and social
structural factors in society. According to Way (1991), “biological influences
theory advance that sex differences in attitudes, abilities, and temperaments
are innate and that these innate differences cause males and females to be differentially
suited for certain work and family roles”. According to the childhood
socialization theories, formed and empirical  personality differences lead males and females
to choose and even prefer different social roles.

Role theory.    Another
framework for exploring work-family conflict is the general role theory. It
introduce to a set of behaviors that have socially agreed-upon functions and an
accepted code of norms. Normal roles include spouse, parent, manager, employee,
church member, student, friend, and more. Roles can represent relationships or
functions, and they are necessary for the achievement of goals and the
maintenance of group unity. A role set is the entire mixture of roles a person
occupies or plays at one time. Strain can occur when there are conflicting
and/or competing demands made by two or more roles held by one person. Role
theory conveys that multiple roles can lead to stressors (work overload and
inter role conflict) and, in turn, to symptoms of strain (Britton, 2017). Work
overload raise to expectations that can lead to an increase in workload and
possible feelings of overload within the work or non work domains. Inter role
conflict refers primarily to the conflict between the roles. As mentioned
previously, role theory has a much larger and general scope regarding
work-family conflict as compared to the role conflict theory. Although one
portion of the role theory focuses on role conflict, it does not provide the
detailed description of the related components as found in the role conflict
theory. Interesting, some authors occasionally infer that role conflict theory
is one construct within the broader role theory framework.

Identity theory.   “Identity theory support that individuals seek
to build desired images of themselves, and anything that blocks creation of
these directed images represents a threat to self identification. Because
conflict between work and family roles constitutes an obstacle to goals of
self-fulfillment, threats resulting from work-family conflict likely lead to
job stress” (Gruber & Macmillan, 2017). Introduce that work-family conflict
represents a, “risk or obstacle to self-identification because it represents
the degree to which work activities are blocked or reserved by pressures and
responsibilities at home and vice versa” . 
People are threatened when obstacles to activities that have potential
implications for identity damage their self-image. Identity theory differs from
role conflict theory and role theory because its basic property is much broader
than its use in this specific context. There are various psychological
functions that are served by developing a sense of identity (i.e., basic need
for self-esteem or self-enhancement; basic need for self-efficacy which is
related to the sense of personal competence and control; and it allows for the
development of self-consistency or coherence). There are many other constructs
that can threaten or impede an individual’s ideal or perceived personal
identity, role conflict or work-family conflict being just a few. 

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