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the rapid rise in world population and industrial growth, the world is
confronted with an alarming energy crisis. According to International Energy
Outlook 2017 between 2015 and 2040, world energy
consumption increases by 28%, with more than half of the increase attributed to
non-OECD Asia (including China and India). World energy consumption increases
from 575 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 2015 to 663 quadrillion Btu
by 2030 and then to 736 quadrillion Btu by 2040. Not surprisingly, rate
of consumption of oil is higher than the production growth and this has
resulted in surge in petroleum fuel price. Oil
prices rise to $109/barrel (real 2016 dollars) in 2040. Total liquids
consumption increases from 191 quadrillion Btu in 2015 to 228 quadrillion Btu
in 2040, when it accounts for 31% of total world energy use. The transportation
sector remains the largest consumer of refined petroleum and other liquids as
their use for travel and freight services increases at a faster rate than their
use in other applications between 2015 and 2040. In India Oil consumption in 2014 stood at 3.8 million barrels per
day (mb/d), 40% of which is used in the transportation sector. Demand for
diesel has been particularly strong, now accounting for some 70% of road
transport fuel use. 1,2

of various energy conversion devices, diesel engine has some outstanding
characteristics, such as higher thermal efficiencies, low specific fuel
consumption, high compression ratio, utilization of leaner air- fuel mixtures,
reliability and low operating and maintenance cost assures its utility in power
generation, automobile sector, farm tech machineries in agriculture, rail
transport, military, telecommunication generator sets, ships etc. Despite of
having tremendous superiorities, diesel engine emits large quantity of
pollutants (NOx, CO2, CO, UHC, soot) which causes serious health hazardous and
environmental degradation. World energy-related
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are projected to grow an average 0.6%/year
between 2015 and 2040, 1.3%/year below the level from 1990 to 2015.
Liquids-related CO2 emissions grow an average 0.7%/year between 2015 and 2040.
Despite large increases in transportation demand, particularly in China and India,
this rate is lower than the 1.2%/year increase seen from 1990 to 2015. On the other hand, India is the third-largest country in
volume terms of CO2 emissions in the world, behind only
China and the United States. Carbon intensity of India’s power sector to 791
grammes of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour (g CO2/kWh),
compared to a world average of 522 g CO2/kWh1,2. One of the main
reasons for global warming is the exhaust emissions generated from the
automotive vehicles. It has been also reported that, an increase in average
global temperature by 2 °C will result in death of hundreds of millions of
people. The reduction

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of CO2 emissions makes the most vital contribution to global warming


The depletion of conventional fossil fuels, growing emissions of combustion-generated
pollutants, and their increasing costs will make biomass sources more
attractive. Currently biodiesel is seen as a solution and almost every country
is preparing a policy on production and use of biodiesel in its transport sector.
is mainly methyl ester of triglycerides prepared from animal fat and virgin or
used vegetable oils (both non-edible and edible) 4. It can be used in diesel
engines as a single fuel or as a diesel–biodiesel blend. Triglycerides being substance with high viscosity can be
converted to biodiesel with lower viscosity by transesterification reaction. Biodiesel
is one of the renewable, nontoxic and environmental friendly and sustainable
alternative biofuels that can be used in a diesel engine with little or no
modification in the engine 5,6. Combustion of biodiesel in engines leads to
lower smoke, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon-di-oxide (CO2) and unburnt hydro
carbon (UHC) emissions, but higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, keeping engine
efficiency unaffected or improved 7,8,9. Among the biodiesel properties, kinematics, viscosity,
density and heating value are the most important parameters that affect the
engine performance and the emission characteristics 10.


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