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Wireless sensor network (WSN) is formed by grouping large number of small sized sensor nodes. Each sensor nodes gathers the data around its environment and transfers the data to Base Station (BS). The sensor nodes are usually equipped with sensing unit, data processing unit and communicating unit and a power source. The sensing unit may possibly be one of sensors, such as magnetic, thermal, infrared, acoustic, and radar etc., according to its application. The sensing unit senses the surrounding condition and generates electrical signals. The data processing unit preprocesses the data sensed by the sensor before sending it to the communicating unit. The communicating unit transmits the data to the central unit BS.Owing to the multitude development in wireless sensor networks finds its application in various domains such as agriculture, military operations, weather forecasting, construction, disaster relief operation, environmental applications, home applications, medical applications etc., One distinctive characteristic of WSN is that sensor nodes are powered by low powered batteries, thus the energy is limited. Additionally the sensor nodes are commonly deployed in inaccessible or remote locations, intricate to reach either to recharge or replace the battery. Thus energy is limited in the WSN. Thus wireless sensor network is an energy centric network and minimization of energy at various levels is very important. Energy minimization in wireless sensor network can be done by advancement in hardware technology or by implementing novel algorithms/protocols. Optimization method, cross layer design approaches, fuzzy logic, channel coding etc are the various methods can be incorporated in various protocols according to its application requirements.Routing protocols plays a major role in energy minimization in sensor network. Routing in WSN is nothing but finding an energy efficient route between the source and the destination node. Network structure based Routing in WSN can be categorized into flat based, hierarchical based and geographical based routing.Hierarchical based routing (clustering) is the most often used routing strategy due to its major advantages such as network scalability, efficient communication, life time maximization, energy minimization. Clustering is nothing but grouping of similar sensor nodes in a WSN into separate groups and allocating a cluster head to each group. The sensor node members of each cluster communicate to the base station or sink through cluster head. The cluster heads are selected among the sensor nodes in WSN, based on certain criteria in each clustering methods.Block cluster based routing, grid cluster based routing and chain cluster based routing are the variations in the clustering based routing protocols. LEACH, EE-LEACH 6, DK-LEACH 7, DL-LEACH 8, HEED, TEEN, LEACH-VF, CCM, EECS, UCS are block cluster based routing protocols. PANEL, GAF, TTDD, SLGC are grid cluster based routing protocols. DCBRP, PEGASIS, CCS, TSC are chain cluster based routing protocols.Routing protocols are generally formulated by considering distance between the nodes, energy metric in particular node. Ant colony optimization, particle swam optimization, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, channel coding, and hybrid optimization methods, cross layer routing, geographical routing,

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