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While taking this class I have learned
so much about the world around us and how we got to where we are today.  A lot of what has gone on in our world in
previous centuries and years has led us to here today and creating the
organizations, political parties and more.

            In Europe there are four
physiographic regions which include Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Central
Europe, and Western Europe and are usually used more for identification than
for regional study.  First, let’s talk
about Northern Europe.  Northern Europe
primarily includes Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.  People who live in these regions often
describe them as the Nordic Countries. 
Norway, Sweden and Denmark referring to the Nordic Countries speak
mostly the German language.  For people
who live in these countries usually practice Protestant Christianity as their
primary religion since about 1000 CE.  In
recent years though, the Lutheran Church has usually been the state
church.  In this area there are many ways
to get people, goods and materials out to other areas, countries and
regions.  The main way is using the
Baltic Sea.  There was a more modern
bridge built across Denmark to Sweden over the Baltic Sea which helped to
increase the effortlessness of getting people, goods and materials to the
mainland of Europe and to other areas. 
Lastly, with Finland being in Northern Europe they are a big producer of
and resource of timber.   Next, Southern Europe includes three large peninsulas that
extend into the Mediterranean Sea and into the Atlantic Ocean.   There is a large mountain range in
Southern Europe called the Pyrenees mountain range that separates the Iberian
Peninsula from France.  In Northern Italy
they have the biggest metropolitan city of Milan which is
an anchor for the global industrial and financial sector in the Lombardy region
of the country.  The city of Milan is at
the core industrial center for the nation and for Europe overall.  With Milan having a very large metropolitan
area, Milan has a very long history as a center of industry and power. Out
of all the countries in Southern Europe, Spain remains the most diverse with
the most number of distinct ethnic groups. 
Many of the countries have very distinct heritage and culture.  Probably one of the most noted cities in the region
is Vatican City which is home to the Pope, who is head of the Roman Catholic
Church.  After Southern Europe we come to
Central Europe or Western Europe as some people refer to the region.  One of the most interesting facts about
Southern Europe is that they are the only country with coastlines on both the
Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.  Being along both of those bodies of water has a direct
advantage to them as they are in the core economic region and have a stable
democratic government.   Another
thing that Central Europe has going for them economically is the port of Rotterdam
which is the busiest port in the Netherlands. 
This allows many goods and materials to be imported and exported at the
port.  Another, historical fact about
Southern Europe is the Iron Curtain that separated East Germany and West German
during World War II.  Both countries were
very much still divided until about 1990 when they were reunited and the Iron
Curtain and the Berlin Wall came crashing down.

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            The mandate system was first
established by the Covenant of the League of Nations to help stop war and
fighting over land that didn’t belong to other countries by taking over the
land of the failed Ottoman Empire and the colonies of Germany.  When the mandates were first originated there
were three different classifications. 
The mandate classifications were Class A Mandate, Class B Mandate, and
Class C Mandate.  All of the countries
that were previously controlled by other states that were defeated by World War
I, which were Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire


            Moving onto the Russian Empire, so
many events have occurred between the 15th century and 1904 that
shaped the Russian Empire and who they are. 
At the beginning of the 15th century
Muscovite princes made a policy of “gathering the Russian lands,” which was a
drive to annex all East Slavic lands. The in 1547, Grand Prince Ivan IV
(The Terrible) was the first ruler to be named Tsar.  Next, in line in 1613 to be Tsar came Michael
Romanov.  By
electing Michael Romanov ended a long period of instability and foreign
intervention.   Then in 1721,
Russia acquired the modern Estonia and Latvia which ended decades of war with
Sweden.  When this happened naval
presence was established in the Baltic Sea. 
Another great accomplishment in Russian history was between 1798
-1815.  At this time Russia took part in
the European coalition against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France.  This defeated Napolean’s invasion in 1812,
ultimately overthrowing Napolean from his reign.  After many years in Russia, they suffered an
obstacle when they attempted to take territory
from declining Ottoman Empire through the defeat in the Crimean War from 1853
to 1857.  Then, while some states in
Russia had already been annexed, Kazakh steppes and Central Asian Muslim became
the next states to become annexed in 1864-1865. 
Another important time in Russia was when the Marxis Social Democratic
Party was founded in 1897, but then in 1903 they split into Menshevik and more
radical Bloshevik fanction.  Lastly, in
1904-1905, Russia expanded into Manchuria which lead to war with Japan.



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