When the word management ismentioned, most people’s first thoughts are about businesses, usuallywhite-collar corporate high-rises. I propose that trends in management in theUnited States are affected more by personal style in leadership and governmentalregulation factors, than by the bottom dollar within a corporation. I will makeuse of the thought process of human nature, evaluate the urbanization ofEngland during the Industrial Revolution, and reflect on the manifestation ofEngland and the United State’s regulations as it pertained to industry andmercantile business in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s to form my points inthis paper.So what is the need for management?Simply put, management is delegating responsibilities through others (Williams).
Taking the work that needs to be done and effectively organizing others toperform it is the foundation that makes up a manager. There are certainly moreeffective managers than others. Imagine you grew up with 5 siblings, where youall had chores and responsibilities that had to be done by a certain time. Whatmotivated you to accomplish those tasks? Nine times out of ten it was out ofrespect for your parents, or the first managers you ever had experience with.Certainly there were times when your parents made you angry or upset you andmade you not want to do as they say. More than likely it ended there and theydid not strive to resolve the conflict, and left you with the responsibilityanyway.
That is an efficient form of managing within a family unit, but notalways effective. In any instance outside of the family managers need toconcern themselves with being effective, not only efficient, which isaccomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives such ascustomer service and satisfaction (Williams). AdamSmith was a Scottish political economist and philosopher that lived in the late1700’s.
He is cited with writing the first system of political economy, “AnInquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”(Biography). Smithalso believed that people often acted in their self-interest, especially ineconomic matters. He contended, however, that this was not bad.
He concludedthat self-seeking individuals were “led by an invisible hand” thatcaused them to unintentionally act in ways that still benefited society (Costly).This point will be brought back and expounded upon later in the paper. InSmith’s work he attacked government involvement in the economy and gave ablueprint for free markets and free trade, for which would later be thefoundation and hallmarks of capitalism as it is seen today (Costly). Smith released his work a few yearsinto the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
Prior to thistime period Nations were believed to be as wealthy as the farms that inhabitedthen, both in number and quality. Smith proposed that the wealth of a nationconsisted of both farm yield and manufactured goods along with the labor ittook to produce them (Costly). A revolutionary idea at the time but Smithargued that to increase its wealth a nation needed to expand its economicproduction (Costly).
Management in the workforce simplywas not ever needed on a large scale prior to this industrialization becausemost craftsman worked from their home or within a production line of neighborsor townspeople, in other words, people they already knew. When there was alarge influx to the urban center to work in factories with dozens, or hundredsof others there was structure needed to organize a wide variety of peoples to maintainan effective and efficient workplace, thus was born the common practice ofmanagers who simply organized and delegated work, but did none themselves. Within the first few pages of the “Wealthof Nations”(WON), Smith lays the framework that dictates human behavior at thetime, which still holds truth today., that it stems from the strive for money.
“The great affair, we always find, is to get money” (Smith). “To grow rich isto get money; and wealth and money, in short, are, in common language, consideredas in every respect synonymous” (Smith). People wanted to get rich, which wasthe goal, and can be found predominately in every first world county today.Money is a strategy. Adam Smith goes on to speak about the reason people strivefor money is because it is a much more efficient system than barter in order toget what they should want, whatever that might be. The value of money is notinherent, but its applicability to any goods or service the beholder finds tobe of value to him.
People only work to spend their money (Smith). Hoshinplanning stems from Japanese development, and includes looking at a problem andaddressing it in four subsequent and chronological steps. The first is todevelop a strategy, which was just outlined in the above paragraph, that togain money is the strategy (IndustryWeek). The second step is to assess what todo with the money. There are only a few limitations in regards to how anindividual can spend his money, even in postcolonial America. Governmentregulation was the only barrier to what money could be spent on, and even inthose cases, it was vague. Theindustrial revolution not only modernized the British economy but also the restof the world including Western Europe and North America (Ashton). FrederickTaylor introduced the concept of scientific management that influenced themanagement thought process in a considerable way and found out that by the useof scientific procedures and methods, the proficiency of workers can beincreased and economy can gain substantial growth (Williams; Frederick).
The principles of scientific management introduced byFrederick Taylor were applied widely across the industries to increase theproductivity of the organizations (Frederick). This was built off of AdamSmith’s notion that that specializing and repeating the same manufacturingprocess over and over would lead to greater production. The separation betweenthese two men is that Taylor worked to develop a science behind each and everyelement of a mans work, which would replace the old rule of thumb orfly-by-the-seat-of-your-pants methods being utilized to date (Williams). Frankand Lillian Gillbreth improved upon Smith’s specialization and brought it intoa manufacturing in a real way. Before theorizing his own thoughts on ‘motionstudy’ Frank Gillbreth was a bricklayer, and his experiences in the fieldhelped him to develop through motion picture films, he could detect and perfectbricklaying form and process to maximize efficiency. A few of his improvementswas bringing bricks up to waist height, avoiding the time needed to stoop orbend down and placed them within easy reach of the worker. As well as alteringthe orientation of the brick to prevent unnecessarily turning it over to findthe correct side and ultimately improved productivity and reduce the amount ofexertion to perform a task. “The greatest waste in the world comes fromneedless, ill-directed, and ineffective motions” (Williams).
Mary Parker Follett was a socialworker who operated in the early 1900’s, and ho contributed more to the modernworkplace management structure than everyone aforementioned with the saveexception of Adam Smith. The primary workplace management structure from thetime of the industrial revolution to the last 50 years could be classified as totalitarianism.Men utilized their position to levy it against their employees, especially inurban Britain, where early factory managers believed they needed to keep wageslow to promote workplace productivity. Many men in the filed subscribed toa domination theory of management, where the manager gets what they want, andwhere the employee does not receive what they wanted, which could also be seenwithin the management style of the family unit brought up in the beginning ofthis paper.
Ms. Follett developed and subscribed to the process of integrativeconflict resolution, or as we would understand it today, compromise. But moreso than giving up a little on both sides, she wanted to meet people where theywere and discuss what would truly be beneficial for both parties (Williams). Ifthere were a polar opposite to the early managers who worked in urban factoriesin England then Elton Mayo would be that. He studied and tested the effects oflighting and incentives of employees over a five-year period, and concludedthat when employees were consulted, allowed to give feedback, the group felt asense of participation in their work and increased productivity. He showed thatincentives, workplace environment, and investing in the social unit culture ofthe workers helped improve production of goods and overall employee health.
Ifthere were to be a chart where the x-axis would be employee involvement in thecompany, and the y-axis showed productivity and plotted points from the earlystages of the industrial revolution, there would be a fairly consistent 45-degreeline plotted. The trend has show that by shifting the focus from a purelynumbers based production evaluation, to a multi faceted management style withina company has a more positive impact on employees, and even increasesproductivity. This is reflected in the introduction video presented by Zapposwhere they outline their core values and how they implement them in theworkplace (What is Zappos). The techgiants Apple and Google have revolutionized the way they approach employee wellbeing and contributions to the company.
Providing free food, creative, non-traditionaloffice spacing, among other new ideas reflect a culmination to managementstyles that focus on efficiency at a personal level, to stoke the coals ofproductivity and effectiveness at a industry level. Iwork within an operating room in a hospital. I am an anomaly within the trendsof management. Even more so than the day shift operating room staff, I work inthe evenings, which is an exclusive club of an exclusive club. You mustmaintain a certain cynical and sarcastic attitude, because some of the thingswe witness are truly horrific.
Management takes that into account, as well asthe free flowing nature of the workspace. Only our managers sit behind desks,and I only come into contact with my manager about twice a month, and usuallyin passing. My manager is a sweet lady who hadhad a lot of responsibility thrust on her with proper acclimation to thepractices of the job she has. She fails to communicate at all, let aloneeffectively, and does a poor job in relation to scheduling and delegation. Anexperience that could reflect the trends in management would be the ability tohave discretion within my job duties. I have no set order in which I need toaccomplish tasks, and am to use my best judgment to make those calls.
It ishard to imaging that being the case in a manufacturing plant, and that is why Igive myself the title of an anomaly in regards to management in the workplace. Works Cited Ashton, T. S. (1948). Some Statistics of the IndustrialRevolution in Britain1. The Manchester School,, 16 (2), 214 – 234. “Biography of Adam Smith.” Biography of Adam Smith (1723-1790) < Biographies < American History From Revolution ToReconstruction and beyond, University of Groningen, Aug.
2012,www.let.rug.nl/usa/biographies/adam-smith/. Costly, Andrew.
“Bill of Rights in Action.” BRIA 23 1 a Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations – Constitutional RightsFoundation, CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION, Apr. 2007, www.
Frederick, T. (1911). The principles of scientificmanagement: New York: Harper and Row. Gulzar, Ayesha. “Impact of Industrial Revolution onManagement Thought .
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Chapter 2, Pages 27-31,35-38 What is Zappos?,YouTube, 5 Dec.2008,www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6WHAfWqX3s.