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When the word management is
mentioned, most people’s first thoughts are about businesses, usually
white-collar corporate high-rises. I propose that trends in management in the
United States are affected more by personal style in leadership and governmental
regulation factors, than by the bottom dollar within a corporation. I will make
use of the thought process of human nature, evaluate the urbanization of
England during the Industrial Revolution, and reflect on the manifestation of
England and the United State’s regulations as it pertained to industry and
mercantile business in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s to form my points in
this paper.

So what is the need for management?
Simply put, management is delegating responsibilities through others (Williams).
Taking the work that needs to be done and effectively organizing others to
perform it is the foundation that makes up a manager. There are certainly more
effective managers than others. Imagine you grew up with 5 siblings, where you
all had chores and responsibilities that had to be done by a certain time. What
motivated you to accomplish those tasks? Nine times out of ten it was out of
respect for your parents, or the first managers you ever had experience with.
Certainly there were times when your parents made you angry or upset you and
made you not want to do as they say. More than likely it ended there and they
did not strive to resolve the conflict, and left you with the responsibility
anyway. That is an efficient form of managing within a family unit, but not
always effective. In any instance outside of the family managers need to
concern themselves with being effective, not only efficient, which is
accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives such as
customer service and satisfaction (Williams).

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            Adam
Smith was a Scottish political economist and philosopher that lived in the late
1700’s. He is cited with writing the first system of political economy, “An
Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”(Biography). Smith
also believed that people often acted in their self-interest, especially in
economic matters. He contended, however, that this was not bad. He concluded
that self-seeking individuals were “led by an invisible hand” that
caused them to unintentionally act in ways that still benefited society (Costly).
This point will be brought back and expounded upon later in the paper. In
Smith’s work he attacked government involvement in the economy and gave a
blueprint for free markets and free trade, for which would later be the
foundation and hallmarks of capitalism as it is seen today (Costly).

Smith released his work a few years
into the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. Prior to this
time period Nations were believed to be as wealthy as the farms that inhabited
then, both in number and quality. Smith proposed that the wealth of a nation
consisted of both farm yield and manufactured goods along with the labor it
took to produce them (Costly). A revolutionary idea at the time but Smith
argued that to increase its wealth a nation needed to expand its economic
production (Costly).

Management in the workforce simply
was not ever needed on a large scale prior to this industrialization because
most craftsman worked from their home or within a production line of neighbors
or townspeople, in other words, people they already knew. When there was a
large influx to the urban center to work in factories with dozens, or hundreds
of others there was structure needed to organize a wide variety of peoples to maintain
an effective and efficient workplace, thus was born the common practice of
managers who simply organized and delegated work, but did none themselves.

Within the first few pages of the “Wealth
of Nations”(WON), Smith lays the framework that dictates human behavior at the
time, which still holds truth today., that it stems from the strive for money.
“The great affair, we always find, is to get money” (Smith). “To grow rich is
to get money; and wealth and money, in short, are, in common language, considered
as in every respect synonymous” (Smith). People wanted to get rich, which was
the goal, and can be found predominately in every first world county today.
Money is a strategy. Adam Smith goes on to speak about the reason people strive
for money is because it is a much more efficient system than barter in order to
get what they should want, whatever that might be. The value of money is not
inherent, but its applicability to any goods or service the beholder finds to
be of value to him. People only work to spend their money (Smith).

            Hoshin
planning stems from Japanese development, and includes looking at a problem and
addressing it in four subsequent and chronological steps. The first is to
develop a strategy, which was just outlined in the above paragraph, that to
gain money is the strategy (IndustryWeek). The second step is to assess what to
do with the money. There are only a few limitations in regards to how an
individual can spend his money, even in postcolonial America. Government
regulation was the only barrier to what money could be spent on, and even in
those cases, it was vague.

            The
industrial revolution not only modernized the British economy but also the rest
of the world including Western Europe and North America (Ashton). Frederick
Taylor introduced the concept of scientific management that influenced the
management thought process in a considerable way and found out that by the use
of scientific procedures and methods, the proficiency of workers can be
increased and economy can gain substantial growth (Williams; Frederick). 

The principles of scientific management introduced by
Frederick Taylor were applied widely across the industries to increase the
productivity of the organizations (Frederick). This was built off of Adam
Smith’s notion that that specializing and repeating the same manufacturing
process over and over would lead to greater production. The separation between
these two men is that Taylor worked to develop a science behind each and every
element of a mans work, which would replace the old rule of thumb or
fly-by-the-seat-of-your-pants methods being utilized to date (Williams).

            Frank
and Lillian Gillbreth improved upon Smith’s specialization and brought it into
a manufacturing in a real way. Before theorizing his own thoughts on ‘motion
study’ Frank Gillbreth was a bricklayer, and his experiences in the field
helped him to develop through motion picture films, he could detect and perfect
bricklaying form and process to maximize efficiency. A few of his improvements
was bringing bricks up to waist height, avoiding the time needed to stoop or
bend down and placed them within easy reach of the worker. As well as altering
the orientation of the brick to prevent unnecessarily turning it over to find
the correct side and ultimately improved productivity and reduce the amount of
exertion to perform a task. “The greatest waste in the world comes from
needless, ill-directed, and ineffective motions” (Williams).

Mary Parker Follett was a social
worker who operated in the early 1900’s, and ho contributed more to the modern
workplace management structure than everyone aforementioned with the save
exception of Adam Smith. The primary workplace management structure from the
time of the industrial revolution to the last 50 years could be classified as totalitarianism.
Men utilized their position to levy it against their employees, especially in
urban Britain, where early factory managers believed they needed to keep wages
low to promote workplace productivity.

Many men in the filed subscribed to
a domination theory of management, where the manager gets what they want, and
where the employee does not receive what they wanted, which could also be seen
within the management style of the family unit brought up in the beginning of
this paper. Ms. Follett developed and subscribed to the process of integrative
conflict resolution, or as we would understand it today, compromise. But more
so than giving up a little on both sides, she wanted to meet people where they
were and discuss what would truly be beneficial for both parties (Williams).

            If
there were a polar opposite to the early managers who worked in urban factories
in England then Elton Mayo would be that. He studied and tested the effects of
lighting and incentives of employees over a five-year period, and concluded
that when employees were consulted, allowed to give feedback, the group felt a
sense of participation in their work and increased productivity. He showed that
incentives, workplace environment, and investing in the social unit culture of
the workers helped improve production of goods and overall employee health.

            If
there were to be a chart where the x-axis would be employee involvement in the
company, and the y-axis showed productivity and plotted points from the early
stages of the industrial revolution, there would be a fairly consistent 45-degree
line plotted. The trend has show that by shifting the focus from a purely
numbers based production evaluation, to a multi faceted management style within
a company has a more positive impact on employees, and even increases
productivity. This is reflected in the introduction video presented by Zappos
where they outline their core values and how they implement them in the
workplace (What is Zappos). The tech
giants Apple and Google have revolutionized the way they approach employee well
being and contributions to the company. Providing free food, creative, non-traditional
office spacing, among other new ideas reflect a culmination to management
styles that focus on efficiency at a personal level, to stoke the coals of
productivity and effectiveness at a industry level.

            I
work within an operating room in a hospital. I am an anomaly within the trends
of management. Even more so than the day shift operating room staff, I work in
the evenings, which is an exclusive club of an exclusive club. You must
maintain a certain cynical and sarcastic attitude, because some of the things
we witness are truly horrific. Management takes that into account, as well as
the free flowing nature of the workspace. Only our managers sit behind desks,
and I only come into contact with my manager about twice a month, and usually
in passing.

My manager is a sweet lady who had
had a lot of responsibility thrust on her with proper acclimation to the
practices of the job she has. She fails to communicate at all, let alone
effectively, and does a poor job in relation to scheduling and delegation. An
experience that could reflect the trends in management would be the ability to
have discretion within my job duties. I have no set order in which I need to
accomplish tasks, and am to use my best judgment to make those calls. It is
hard to imaging that being the case in a manufacturing plant, and that is why I
give myself the title of an anomaly in regards to management in the workplace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

 

Ashton, T. S. (1948). Some Statistics of the Industrial
Revolution in Britain1.

 The Manchester School,, 16 (2), 214 – 234.

 

“Biography of Adam Smith.” Biography of Adam Smith (1723-1790) < Biographies <  American History From Revolution To Reconstruction and beyond, University  of Groningen, Aug. 2012, www.let.rug.nl/usa/biographies/adam-smith/.   Costly, Andrew. "Bill of Rights in Action." BRIA 23 1 a Adam Smith and The Wealth of  Nations - Constitutional Rights Foundation, CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION, Apr. 2007, www.crf-usa.org/bill-of-rights-in-action/bria-23- 1-a-adam-smith-and-the-wealth-of-nations.html.   Frederick, T. (1911). The principles of scientific management: New York: Harper and Row.   Gulzar, Ayesha. "Impact of Industrial Revolution on Management Thought ." Sukkur  IBA Journal of Management and Business, vol. 2, no. 1, Apr. 2015, pp. 1–16., www.google.com/url?sa=t=j==s=web=2=rja& uact=8=0ahUKEwiu_62p3uPYAhVQI6wKHVXsAmEQFggvMAE=htt p%3A%2F%2Fsijmb.iba-suk.edu.pk%2Fdownloads%2F2015%2FSIJMB- Y15V2I1A1.pdf=AOvVaw2qKWZ-JZjBT2gO3TQNDC44.   IndustryWeek TV. Why Use Hoshin Planning?, YouTube, 4 Aug. 2009, www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=250=f5SDpIoXNJM.   Smith, Adam, and Bob Carruthers. An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth  of nations. Coda Books Limited, 2012. Chapter 1, Page 2   Williams, Chuck. MGMT10: Principles of Management. Cengage Learning, 2018. Chapter 2, Pages 27-31, 35-38   What is Zappos?, YouTube, 5 Dec.2008,www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6WHAfWqX3s.  

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