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What are the various concepts of computing connectivity methods?


Fixed Broadband Internet. …

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Mobile Internet. …

Virtual Private Network (VPN)…

Dial-up networks. …

Local Area Network (LAN)…

Direct networks.





Methods and their characteristics


Summaries the main hardware devices and in a network


Network Hub:

Network Hub is a networking device which is used to connect multiple
network hosts. A network hub is also used to do data transfer. The data is
transferred in terms of packets on a computer network. So when a host sends a
data packet to a network hub, the hub copies the data packet to all of its
ports connected to. Like this, all the ports know about the data and the port
for whom the packet is intended, claims the packet.

However, because of its working mechanism, a hub is not so secure and
safe. Moreover, copying the data packets on all the interfaces or ports makes
it slower and more congested which led to the use of network switch.


Network Switch:

Like a hub, a switch also works at the layer of LAN (Local Area
Network) but you can say that a switch is more intelligent than a hub. While
hub just does the work of data forwarding, a switch does ‘filter and
forwarding’ which is a more intelligent way of dealing with the data packets.

So, when a packet is received at one of the interfaces of the switch,
it filters the packet and sends only to the interface of the intended receiver.
For this purpose, a switch also maintains a CAM (Content Addressable Memory)
table and has its own system configuration and memory. CAM table is also called
as forwarding table or forwarding information base (FIB).



A Modem is somewhat a more interesting network device in our daily
life. So if you have noticed around, you get an internet connection through a
wire (there are different types of wires) to your house. This wire is used to
carry our internet data outside to the internet world.

However, our computer generates binary data or digital data in forms
of 1s and 0s and on the other hand, a wire carries an analogue signal and
that’s where a modem comes in.

A modem stands for (Modulator Demodulator). That means it modulates
and demodulates the signal between the digital data of a computer and the analogue
signal of a telephone line.


Network Router:

A router is a network device which is responsible for routing traffic
from one to another network. These two networks could be a private company
network to a public network. You can think of a router as a traffic police who
directs different network traffic to different directions.



If a router connects two different types of networks, then a bridge
connects two subnetworks as a part of the same network. You can think of two
different labs or two different floors connected by a bridge.



A repeater is an electronic device that amplifies the signal it receives.
In other terms, you can think of repeater as a device which receives a signal
and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power so that the signal can
cover longer distances.


For example, inside a college campus, the hostels might be far away
from the main college where the ISP line comes in. If the college authority
wants to pull a wire in between the hostels and main campus, they will have to
use repeaters if the distance is much because different types of cables have
limitations in terms of the distances they can carry the data for.

When these network devices take a particular configurational shape on
a network, their configuration gets a particular name and the whole formation
is called Network topology. In certain circumstances when we add some more
network devices to a network topology, it’s called Daisy chaining.


Explain the key characteristics of the internet and how they link to
the devices


its global nature;


its potential to shift the balance of power in
the offline world;



its facilitation of republication;

the prominence of intermediaries;

its reliance on hyperlinks/hypertext;

its long-term impact?—?the use of permanent

its multimedia character; and

Its temporal indeterminacy.


Characteristics of WAN

The types of transmission media over which they
can operate

The transport technique they use to transmit
data over the network (that is, broadband or baseband)

The access method, which is involved in
determining who gets to use the network and when they get to use it

The topology, or mapping, of the network (that
is, the physical and logical connections between the nodes on the network)


Characteristics of WAN

Lower bandwidth compared to LANs.

Typically interconnect multiple LANs.

Exist in an unlimited geographic area.

Some resources, usually data communication
equipment, is managed externally to organisations using the WAN


Characteristics of MAN

The network size falls intermediate between LANs
and WANs. A MAN typically covers an area of between 5 and 50 km diameter. Many
MANs cover an area the size of a city, although in some cases MANs may be as
small as a group of buildings or as large as the North of Scotland.

A MAN (like a WAN) is not generally owned by a
single organisation. The MAN, its communications links and equipment are
generally owned by either a consortium of users or by a single network provider
who sells the service to the users. This level of service provided to each user
must therefore be negotiated with the MAN operator, and some performance
guarantees are normally specified.

A MAN often acts as a high speed network to
allow sharing of regional resources (similar to a large LAN). It is also
frequently used to provide a shared connection to other networks using a link
to a WAN.


Present your findings, either as a report/presentation of mind map/diagram

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