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What are the Most Protective Materials for Helmets EngineeringExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherOzzie Telisman640 W. Scott St. Chicago, IL 60610Grade #7Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4Background Research Page 5Materials and Procedure Page 6Results Page 7 Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 8Reference List Page 9AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank my dad for conducting the experiment with me, and michaels for helping supply me me with everything I needed.Purpose and HypothesisThe purpose of my experiment was to see what kind of motorcycle helmet materials can protect the most head injuries. This way, I could see what motorcycle helmets might be able to revolutionize the world.My hypothesis is if I test different types of helmets, then the helmet with batting and the smooth foam should be the best because the batting will stop the impact, and the foam is a good shell to stop head injuries.Review of LiteratureAll motorcycle helmets consist of a liner and a shell. The liner is made of soft foam that absorbs the hit and the shell holds the liner and is a little extra protection. The liner is the most important part though, because it is where most of the crash is managed. The best liner material is one that can absorb the most energy/unit volume, while limiting the load on the head to a less damaging level. That is why a commonly used material for helmets is the type of styrofoam you get at take out diners because it absorbs a lot of energy when crushed.  A fun fact is 85% of crashes are prevented with helmets. Another fact is half-helmets are a lot more dangerous than a full face helmet. This is because both the front and the rear have total coverage. An egg is an adequate resemblance of the human head because the yolk represents the brain as it twists in the skull on impact. The shell of the egg also represents a skull because of its somewhat hard smooth edge. The yolk is also very soft and fragile, which can represent the brain.  Materials and ProcedureThe materials I used were 18 eggs, 3 medium sized smooth foam balls, 3 medium sized wet foam balls, 6 egg cartons, 1 medium sized packet of raffia, one medium sized packet of batting, one medium sized package of bubble wrap, and a ceramic bowl. I took the wet styrofoam and the smooth foam, cut it in half, and drilled a hole getting as close as I could to the edge (those and the egg cartons will be “shells” for the motorcycle helmet)I took 1.5 teaspoons of a liner (bubble wrap, batting, or raffia) and stuffed it into any of the “shells”I took an egg and put it into the helmet and wrapped two smallish rubber bands around the egg and the helmet to keep the helmet on.I dropped the egg from a two foot height onto a ceramic bowl.I looked at the damage done to the egg and how it happened from a slow motion video of the impactI did a second trial of the same helmetI repeated steps 2-6 for every combination of shells and linersResultsTrial #1 for smooth foam and batting: Original impact on the side of the head, resulted in damage of a large crack with brain spilling out. Where the bounce was, there was no damage, but was hit in the non-helmet area. Trial #2: Original impact was on the side, which resulted in a large brainy crack. There was a bounce on the non-helmet area, which may have possibly caused some of the crack Trial #1 for smooth foam and raffia: The original impact was on the side, but there was no damage. Out of three bounces, one gave a small crack to the egg Trial #2: The original impact was on the head, which resulted in no injury, but the bounce resulted in a tiny crack Trial #1 for the egg carton and raffia: Impact on the side of the head resulted in a large crack and a small crack on the neck from 2 bounces Trial #2: The Impact was on the side of the head, no injury, but on the bounce, there was a crack on the neckTrial #1 for wet foam and batting: Impact on the side of the head, small crack with yolk, where bounce was on the neck, no injuryTrial #2: Impact was on the side of the head, two bounces on neck, no injury at all Trial #1 for wet foam and bubble wrap: Impact was on the side of the head, and 2 bounces on the head, no damage at allTrial #2: Impact on the head, no bounces no damageTrial #1 for wet foam and raffia: Impact was on the head, no bounces, no damageTrial #2: Impact was on the head, no bounces no damageTrial #1 for bubble wrap and smooth foam: Impact was on the side of the head and 3 bounces, one bounce made a crack on the neckTrial #2: Original impact was on the side of the head and three bounces on the head, no damage at allTrial #1 for bubble wrap and egg carton: Impact was on the side of the head, and bounce on the side of the head. small spiderweb from impactTrial #2: Impact was on the head, and a bounce on the head, no damage at allTrial #1 for batting and egg cartons: Impact was on the side of the head and two bounces on the neck, no damage at allTrial #2: Impact was on the side of the head and roll onto the side. Major damage on impact and gutty brain spillsConclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationMy science fair project was about what motorcycle helmet would result in the least amount of head injury. I hypothesized that the smooth foam and the batting would result in less of an injury but I was wrong. I believe this is because the batting was firmer and couldn’t brace an impact. I tested my hypothesis by putting an egg inside the “helmet” and dropped the egg from a certain distance to see how much damaged was caused on the force of impact.My experiment can be used in a real life situation to see what kind of material for a motorcycle helmet could prevent the most head injuries. My results are important because motorcycle accidents happen very often, in fact, about 5,000 people died from motorcycle accidents in 2012, not including injuries. My data could potentially save thousands of lives. My experiment can be included in daily lives to see what is the best protection from transportation crashes. My experiment describes how motorcycle helmets are created and what materials could be a big factor in creating one.I believe my test was somewhat unfair. This is because the motorcycle shells may have been different thicknesses and some of the eggs that I bought may have been stronger than others. If I could change the experiment, I would make the height 3 ft instead of 2. I would also use other materials instead of just 6. One thing I am curious about from my experiment is why the wet foam worked so well, considering it is very soft and can be smushed easily. I would further my experiment by making the wet foam smaller to see if it was just the size that mattered.Reference ListSiler, W. (2015, March 18). The New Materials That Are Revolutionizing Helmet Safety Right Now. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://gizmodo.com/helmet-safety-is-being-revolutionized-right-now-1692246906Motorcycle Helmets Product Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from http://www.motorcycle-usa.com/2007/11/article/motorcycle-helmets-product-guide/Materials for Bicycle Helmets. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from http://www.grantadesign.com/resources/materials/casestudies/helmet.htm(n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://helmets.org/howmade.htmHelmets. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/short/OCR/helmets/default.htmlFortNine. (2017, January 17). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://fortnine.ca/en/materials-used-in-motorcycle-helmets/What are Motorcycle Helmets Made Of? (2009, December 01). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://www.doityourself.com/stry/what-are-motorcycle-helmets-made-of

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