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Water (H20) is one of the most commonly known life essentialthat normal living things would not survive without. Water (H2O) is as seethrough transparent chemical substance that covers about 71% of the world inmany different forms. Due to water’s molecular configuration water, it can formmany properties such as: Surface tension, expansion of water upon freezing, theinteraction of water with light, and lastly the effect of density on floatingorganism.  These physical properties havemany effects on the biological systems on the ones living under water.There are many issuesthat water expansion upon freezing causes such as making the iceberg floatabove the water surface.

This essay will be mainly focusing on the expansion ofwater upon freezing the factors that will effect on the iceberg floating, inthis essay will explain these factors and give the advantages and disadvantagesof these factors.What causes water to expand upon freezing is the fact thatthe water crystalizes into an open hexagonal form which has an open free spacemore than water in a liquid state.                                           The water will behave like other substances until it reaches4 degrees Celsius, and then when it freezes it expands by approximately 9%.In fact this is considered as an unusual behavior for water and this behavioris due to the strong tendency of forming the network between hydrogen bonds.Hydrogen bonds are the covalent bond between the two hydrogen atoms and oneoxygen atom to form a network from hydrogens and oxygen in lattice hexagonal structure. Iceberg cubes are commonly known for their absorption ofcarbon dioxide which will have a huge effect on the environment that surroundsthe icebergs such as trees. Trees is one of the main factors that has to absorbcarbon dioxide to produce oxygen for the human and all animals, as carbondioxide decreases the environment which contain the trees will decrease due tothe decrease in the carbon dioxide absorption which also decreases theproduction of oxygen. There are many advantages and disadvantages of icebergabsorption of carbon dioxide which will be mentioned in the following table: Advantages Disadvantages High levels of carbon dioxide have an effect on human’s health and can lead to death sometimes.

Trees is the main factor of producing oxygen to living things using carbon dioxide using photosynthesis, as icebergs absorb more carbon dioxide it can lead to lack of carbon dioxide in the environment for the trees to absorb. There are many greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide that has a huge harm on the environment that iceberg absorbs and prevent it from harming/polluting the environment.    The density has a major effect on floatingand benthic organisms. When water has a change in temperature it changes thedensity of it which has a huge impact on living organisms in water. Most organismshave bodies that are at least 90% water shows that at least 90% of their bodyweight will be offset by weight of the water around them. In frosty winters andfreezing weathers It is hard for fishes and such creature to survive, becausethe surface of the water is mostly frozen and filled with icebergs whichprevents the benthic creatures to receive oxygen light, etc… and which alsodoes not allow the floating creatures such as: humans or animals to reach thebottom part of the water to feed themselves due to the icebergs and frozensurface of the water.

The other physical property of water is surface tension. Surfacetension is the cohesive force between the liquid molecules. Water has a surfacetension of 72 dynes/cm. It would take a force of 72 dynes to break a surfacefilm of water 1 cm long.

As temperature increase the surface tensionwill decrease due to the cohesive forces decrease in addition to the increaseof molecular thermal activity.           

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