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Water (H20) is one of the most commonly known life essential
that normal living things would not survive without. Water (H2O) is as see
through transparent chemical substance that covers about 71% of the world in
many different forms. Due to water’s molecular configuration water, it can form
many properties such as: Surface tension, expansion of water upon freezing, the
interaction of water with light, and lastly the effect of density on floating
organism.  These physical properties have
many effects on the biological systems on the ones living under water.

There are many issues
that water expansion upon freezing causes such as making the iceberg float
above the water surface. This essay will be mainly focusing on the expansion of
water upon freezing the factors that will effect on the iceberg floating, in
this essay will explain these factors and give the advantages and disadvantages
of these factors.

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What causes water to expand upon freezing is the fact that
the water crystalizes into an open hexagonal form which has an open free space
more than water in a liquid state.                                          

The water will behave like other substances until it reaches
4 degrees Celsius, and then when it freezes it expands by approximately 9%.
In fact this is considered as an unusual behavior for water and this behavior
is due to the strong tendency of forming the network between hydrogen bonds.
Hydrogen bonds are the covalent bond between the two hydrogen atoms and one
oxygen atom to form a network from hydrogens and oxygen in lattice hexagonal structure.

Iceberg cubes are commonly known for their absorption of
carbon dioxide which will have a huge effect on the environment that surrounds
the icebergs such as trees. Trees is one of the main factors that has to absorb
carbon dioxide to produce oxygen for the human and all animals, as carbon
dioxide decreases the environment which contain the trees will decrease due to
the decrease in the carbon dioxide absorption which also decreases the
production of oxygen.

There are many advantages and disadvantages of iceberg
absorption of carbon dioxide which will be mentioned in the following table:



High levels of carbon dioxide have an effect on human’s health and
can lead to death sometimes.

Trees is the main factor of producing oxygen to living things using
carbon dioxide using photosynthesis, as icebergs absorb more carbon dioxide
it can lead to lack of carbon dioxide in the environment for the trees to

There are many greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide that has a
huge harm on the environment that iceberg absorbs and prevent it from
harming/polluting the environment.



The density has a major effect on floating
and benthic organisms. When water has a change in temperature it changes the
density of it which has a huge impact on living organisms in water. Most organisms
have bodies that are at least 90% water shows that at least 90% of their body
weight will be offset by weight of the water around them. In frosty winters and
freezing weathers It is hard for fishes and such creature to survive, because
the surface of the water is mostly frozen and filled with icebergs which
prevents the benthic creatures to receive oxygen light, etc… and which also
does not allow the floating creatures such as: humans or animals to reach the
bottom part of the water to feed themselves due to the icebergs and frozen
surface of the water.

The other physical property of water is surface tension. Surface
tension is the cohesive force between the liquid molecules. Water has a surface
tension of 72 dynes/cm. It would take a force of 72 dynes to break a surface
film of water 1 cm long. As temperature increase the surface tension
will decrease due to the cohesive forces decrease in addition to the increase
of molecular thermal activity.           

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