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Water pollution
is one of the major environmental problems worldwide caused as a result of
various factors. At present, Thailand is facing a critical water pollution
problem. One of the main causes of water pollution arises from wastewater that
comes from the textile industries. Over 10,000 pigments and dyes used in these
textile industries are toxic and harmful to human and aquatic life (Charoenlarp
& Choyphan, 2009). The dyes degrade and produce products that are toxic and
carcinogenic to humans and animals (Carmen & Daniel, 2012). Colors and dyes
are extremely important in all aspects of human life. Everything that meets the
human eye consists of a variety of colors. In general, colorful clothes tend to
be more attractive to most people than the dull black and white combination.

Therefore, the dyeing process is essential in all textile industries (Ratna
& Padhi, 2012). During the dyeing process, about 10-25% of textile dyes are
lost and 2-20% are released as aqueous effluents in different environmental
components. The dyes released usually escape traditional wastewater treatment
processes and remain in the environment for a long time as they have high
stability to light, temperature, chemicals and bleach as well (Joshi et al.,
2004). Consequently, the turbidity of water increases which reduces light
penetration that is required for photosynthetic activity. This in turn disrupts
the mechanism of oxygen transfer at air water surface and therefore decreases
the level of dissolved oxygen (Kant, 2012). As a result, plants can’t make
their own food and they eventually die. This also leads to a major disruption
of food chain in the ecosystem (Upadhyay & Mahajan, 2014). Moreover, the
concentration of dyes that are discharged have many effects on different
organisms. For example, it can cause irritation to the respiratory tract as
well as causing ulceration of skin, and mucous membrane (Lavanya et al., 2014).

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As
aforementioned, the dye containing wastewater affects aquatic organisms.

However, these dye containing wastewater can be treated using different methods
including physical and chemical processes like adsorption, oxidation processes,
microbiological or enzymatic decomposition (Khandare & Govindwar, 2015).

Even though there are many treatments, these methods are usually very expensive
and produce secondary pollutant (Tahir et al., 2016). An alternative technique
that is environmental protective known as phytoremediation is now a common
method used to remove pollutants in water (Saravanan et al., 2015). According
to Salt et al. (1998), phytoremediation is a process in which green plants are
used to rid of the pollutants present in the environment. This is a cost
effective as well as environmental friendly method that is easy to carry out. Phytoremediation
can be used to remove organic and inorganic pollutants present in both solid
substrates like soil and liquid substrates like water. The processes included
in phytoremediation are phytodegradation (breakdown pollutants),
phytostabilization (lowers the bioavailability of pollutants),
phytovolatilization (clears pollutants) and rhizofiltration (using the roots of
plant to absorb pollutants). Nonetheless, the main key for phytoremediation to
be favorable is to be able to identify plants that can withstand high
concentration of chemicals and pollutants present in the surrounding.

 

Hence, this
research aims to study different plants to see which one best absorb eosin, an
acidic dye, present in the water. The different plants that will be use in this
experiment are Eryngium foetidum- plant
grown on soil, Ipomoea aquatica- semi
aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata- an
aquatic plant. The plant that shows the most decrease in optical density of
water containing eosin dye, for a given period of time, is considered to be the
most effective in using for the process of phytoremediation. Lastly, different
concentrations of eosin in water would be used see the effect of toxicity on
the organism, Artemia salina.

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