Vaccination aids in
creating herd immunity which helps in reducing disease transmission to the
unvaccinated group. With vaccination, the American society has been able to
have a 99.2% and 99.3% eradication of tetanus and pertussis respectively.
However, these diseases have started to re-emerge and this has been caused by
non-vaccination of some children under the age of 5 years. In 2015, it was
discovered that one child out of every 5 children missed their vaccination. If
this rate increases, the mortality and morbidity rates of preventable diseases
among children will escalate and some of the previously eradicated diseases
will begin to resurface (Mawson,
Ray, Bhuiyan & Jacob, 2017).
Children that remain unvaccinated are at a higher risk of
contracting diseases such as diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, and
rotavirus-related gastroenteritis. These diseases increase the child mortality
and morbidity rates and can also lead to more severe complications. In
addition, non-compliance places the whole community at risk since it promotes
the re-emergence of previously eradicated diseases that pose a risk to the
health of all the people in the community. The purpose of this study is to
determine if there is any significance difference between the health outcomes
of under 5 children who have been vaccinated and those that have not been
vaccinated. This is a crucial aspect that needs to be researched on in order to
give insight on the role of vaccination in improving the health of children who
are 5 years and younger.
The independent variables are the children, their age,
sex, socioeconomic status, religion, area of residence, and their family. These
variables are constant and they affect the outcome of the dependent variable.
The dependent variable is vaccination and its health benefits. For the children
to be vaccinated and receive the healthcare benefits associated with
immunization, the independent variables must be favorable.
Definition of Terms
Immunization- this is the
process of making a person resistant to a specific infectious disease through
the administration of a vaccine.
Vaccine- this is a
biologically prepared substance that consists of a weakened or killed pathogen.
The weakened microbe stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that
are specific in fighting that specific pathogen. By doing this, the person
becomes immune to the disease such that in case of its occurrence, the illness will
not be severe and its symptoms will wane off quickly. However, the vaccine does
not cause disease-specific symptoms.