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by definition, is the process by which rural areas are transformed into urban areas
and the process which increases the number and size of those areas. In the
past, it was a sign of development, the higher the rate, the better. However,
in today’s world, 54 per cent of the world’s population lives in
urban areas, a proportion that is expected to increase to 66 per cent by 2050
(UN, 2014). This is still a sign of development, however this can bring a long
multiple issues for city dwellers, especially in highly populated area. In
fact, neighborhood studies have shown that large-city dwellers tend to know
fewer of their neighbors than people live in smaller areas.

            It matters that we take notice of
this pattern because unlike a common belief that many people have, which is
urban life is where people increase their social ties (which is partly true),
large cities can also make people secluded and become more individualistic. Personally,
I think that it can be a sign for a bigger issue. It is suggested that people
live in large city have higher rates of having mental illness (anxiety,
depression) than people reside in rural area. Furthermore, the fact that city
dwellers don’t pay too much attention their neighbours can be a signal for an
increase in the number of bystanders.

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Claude Fischer, an American sociologist and Professor of
Sociology of California, Berkerly, argues that, unlike living in rural areas, living
in urban areas can increase the rate of citizens having social and
psychological disorders. Georg Simmel and Louis Wirth also postulated that significant
increase in the exposure to lights, noise and too many people in the city can put
on so much pressure and stress on city dwellers. As a result, city dwellers become
withdrawn and disconnected from interactions and community. The indifference, antipathy
and avoidance of any interpersonal connections might lead to fewer and fewer
interactions as time goes by and therefore, slowly deadened the network and social
ties until the individual is all alone, with out any support from anyone, which
of course might heavily affect that individual’s social, mental and physical

Fischer also states that the phenomena of “critical mass”
characteristic in urban city can encourage the emergence of new subcultures. This
theory supports the idea that urbanism helps to reinforce social life rather
than eradicating it. According to Fischer, the reason why cities promote
subcultural formation is because their highly dense populations make it more
likely that a number of people will share a given interest even though it may
seem to be statistically rare or unorthodox. Furthermore, the freedom created
by a sub-group which provides animosity, indifference and tolerating
environment enables urban dwellers with bizarre interests to find and come to
each other and to be able to construct subcultures or communities within a community.

The larger the city, the greater the number of “critical masses” and the higher
the likelihood of subcultures of many types constructed. 

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