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Synopsis for M. Sc (Hons) clothing
and textile Degree

TITLE: Role of Antibacterial Herbal
Finish on Textiles

                     Name of Student                               :             Shumaila Mumtaz Bakhtawer

                     Registration #                                    :             2016-ag-49

                     Name of Supervisor                          :            
Ms. Anum Asghar


Textile is an
important part of our life, whether it is our clothing, medical related
textile, sports related textiles or home textiles. It contacts with our skin is
all aspects. So it should be hygienic, non-toxic and sometime have curing power
of any disease. For this purpose, many herbs such as neem, turmeric, garlic,
aloe vera, henna, peepal, lime and banyan leaves etc. can be use and can also
be used as eco-friendly textile and known as herbal textiles which is non-toxic
for skin and have healing power. These herbs are extracted and applied on fabric
and can be used for curing the disease from headache to cancer and can increase
the Mechanical properties, Strength, Elasticity, Durability and Bio-compatibility
of textile.













Plants are an organic source of healing products especially
in medical. The old experts uses crude pyrolysis method for medicine extract
from stem part of medicinal plants and use the oily substance extracted from
plants for the treatment of pain, inflammation and other musculoskeletal
disorders. There are many plants available for the cure of diseases ranging
from headache to cancer.

The term Herbal
Textile is used for a textile material in which herbal extractions is involved completely
for dyeing or finishing, and not using any type of chemicals. These herbs
differ from natural dyes like vegetable dyes as well as have medicinal value. The
blend of herbs and oils which is used to infuse clothing made from organic cotton
fabric and promotes health and therapeutic special diseases.

Herbalists use
extraction from plants parts, includes roots or leaves but not detach specific
phytochemicals. They discussed that the herbs can improve the healing effects
of the herb and lesser toxicity.

The healing value of
herbal treated textile (or herbal garment) and its usage are based on the
principle of touch. When the body comes in contact with the herbal cloth, it
loses toxins and its metabolism is enhanced. These garments help in fighting
many common and prevalent diseases such as hypertension, heart ailments,
asthma, diabetes and skin diseases. For diabetes, Mimosa pudica (touch-me-not),
cumon/cumin seeds, Magnolia champaca (champa flower) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
or shoe flower are combined in the herbal dye. The main herbs used in the
herbal dye for arthritis are curry leaves and apocynceae. Whereas, for skin
diseases, the herbs used are turmeric, neem, indigo and sandalwood. Rubia
cordifola, majith are known to be effective against diseases like leprosy.
Katha, catechu is used for treatment of parasitic infestation and itching.

Textiles treated
with medical herbs can be used in medical gown, operation room theatre fabric
etc. also by application of wound healing herbals on cotton have a scope in
wound healing/ wound dressing manufacturing.

Antibacterial agents
can be applied on textile materials (fabrics) so as to protect the wearer from
infection. Antimicrobial textiles with improved functionality finds a variety
of applications such as health and hygiene products, specially the garments
worn close to the skin and several medical applications, such as infection control
and barrier material. Herbal antimicrobial finish is one of the special
finishes which can be applied to the textile material to protect the skin of
the wearer and the textile substrate itself.

There is a vast
resource of natural antimicrobial agent/antimicrobial finish which can be used
for imparting antimicrobial property to textile substrates. Some of mostly used
natural antimicrobial agents are clove, cardamom, curry leaves, neem, tulsi stem,
leave, aloevera, etc. But most of them are carcinogenic. Several studies have
been done on antimicrobial activity of cotton fabric treated with aloe gel
extract, effect of laundering on herbal finishes, antibacterial treatment on
cotton fabric from neem oil, aloe vera &tulsi etc.

Neem has been recognized as one of the most
promising sources of compounds with insect control, antibacterial and medicinal
properties. Neem has also received a lot of attention worldwide for its
potential use as a herbal pesticide and other healthcare formulations in
countries such as China, USA, France, Germany, Italy, etc.

The active ingredients of Neem are found in all
parts of the tree but in general, seed, bark, leaves and roots are used for
extraction purpose. The Neem extracts have been widely used in herbal pesticide
formulation because of its pest repellent properties has a potential to inhibit
growth of bacteria both Gram positive and Gram negative.

Neem (Azadirachta Indica) products
are well known for their antifungal and antibacterial property. The neem
extract obtained from the trees leaves when fixed on the woven fabric with
fixing agents; it shows some interesting physical and biological properties.
The finished product was subjected to IR, wicking, antibacterial tests for
commercial exploration.

neem Self Cure for Common and Chronic
Ailments’ suggests that the primary purpose of neem leaves is the treatment of
vaata disorders or neuromuscular pains. Then come the other benefits: purify
the blood, prevent damage caused by free radicals in the body, remove toxins, and
treat insect bites and ulcers. 

Neem leaves have
anti-bacterial properties which is why it works wonders on infections, burns
and any kind of skin problems. It destroys the bacteria that causes infections,
stimulates the immune system and encourages rapid healing.

Neem flowers can be used to treat
anorexia, nausea, belching and intestinal worms. Ayurveda suggests neem leaves are
good for the eyes and useful in treating skin disease and headaches. They’re
used in aromatherapy because of their calming effect. A 2008 study also found
the alcoholic extract of the neem flowers to be an effective contraceptive.


A Bandage is a standard
of biomaterial used on wound to protect from infections and also to cure the
wound. An adhesive bandage, also called a sticking plaster is a small dressing
used for injuries not serious enough to require a full-size bandage. The
adhesive bandage protects the cut from friction, bacteria, damage and dirt. In
this present study of 50%:50% Bamboo Cotton web was selected for the
construction of bandage functional part. In functional part of web was finished
with eco-friendly natural leaves of Galinsoga parviflora and Neem. For the
finished web the antibacterial assessment EN ISO 20645 and anti-allergy
assessment of the finished fabric contact allergy test (in house method) was
carried out. From the test, it was concluded as 50%:50% Bamboo cotton finished
with Galinsoga parviflora and Neem has excellent wound curing property when
compared to 50%:50% Bamboo cotton finished with Galinsoga parviflora. This
study used to prevent the skin allergy, protect from the Bacteria and also to
cure the skin diseas. (Sumithra M)

The traditional
applications of textiles in healthcare, including non-implantable materials,
such as wipes and swabs, gauzes, bandages, wound dressing, surgical wear,
masks, orthopedic applications, light support and compression garments, are
also receiving constant attention for more innovative developments to provide
better care and cure. However, recent radical developments in the field of
surgical implants, extracorporeal devices, tissue engineering, antimicrobial
barrier fabrics, hard-tissue applications in orthopedic implants,
cardiovascular devices, endovascular treatments, biosorbable polymeric and even
“wearable vitaminized” fibre materials have resulted in radical changes in the
medical textile industry. To develop these new applications, polymer
scientists, physicist, doctors and textile researchers have joined hands in
conducting the required advanced multi-disciplinary experiments.( Rajesh D.

When the textile is
dyed with the extractions obtained from various herbs, they are referred to as
Herbal Textile. When the dyeing is done with herbal extractions, no chemicals
are used in its dyeing process. Whereas, some chemicals such as copper sulphate
and ferrous sulphate, are used as catalysts when dyeing is done with vegetable
dyes. So, herbal dyes are different from vegetable dyes as they also carry some
or the other medicinal value. Herbal garment products are made without
pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics, growth hormones, genetically modified
organisms, additives, irradiation or sewage sludge. Textile industry has become
somewhat conscious about its negative contribution to the environment pollution
through the textile chemicals used in its various manufacturing process. Environmental
friendly fibers such as organic cotton & recycled polyester have become
popular among the fabrics & apparel manufacturers. However, after these
fabrics or the finished garments are manufactured, they have to be dyed in the
same chemicals dyes that are very harmful to the environment. Apart from
growing cotton, dyeing is a major area of concern for people who have chemical
sensitivities. Garments finishing techniques like wrinkle free, &
non-shrink may also be harmful people with sensitive skin. They may cause
nausea, breathing difficulties, seizures etc. Herbal dyeing is one step ahead
of organic life style. It supports the core concept of organic to eliminate
impact of harmful chemicals & pesticides. It avoids many ailments that are
common with conventional clothing. ( Mr. Prafull P. Kolte1, Mr. Vijay S.
Shivankar2, Mr. Ramachandran M3)

In Neem, wound has
stated as tissue destruction and discoloration of viable tissue due to various
etiology. In Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta described Vrana as a main subject. Most
commonly Vrana can be classified into (chronic wound/nonhealing ulcers). Among
the various drugs mentioned for two of them, Neem oil and Curcuma longa Linn. Powder
is selected for their wide spectrum action on wound. (Anjali Singh, Anil Kumar
Singh, G. Narayan,1 Teja
B. Singh,2 and Vijay
Kumar Shukla)

Medical textiles are
one of the major growth areas within technical textile and the use textile
materials for the medical and health care products ranges from bandage
materials to scaffolds tissue culturing and large variety of theses for
permanent body implants. It will be stressed that one of the high tech of
medical textile is the application of bandages for enhancing the quality of
life. The use of the textile fibres in medical application is becoming very
popular. There is no doubt that this diversification will lead to a resurgence
of the textile industry. (Abdul
Wahid Dadhiwale )

One such attempt is
development of wound dressing with neem leaves and turmeric. The qualitative
and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive constitutions of methanol
extracts of Terminalia Chebulahas been studied, which prove their potential in
resisting a wide range of bacteria. Eco friendly natural antifungal finish has
been prepared from plant extract and applied on textile material. Antibacterial
fabric has been developed using. Murraya koengii (curry leave) and Zingiber
officinale (ginger) oil. It is also intended to produce eco-friendly
antimicrobial cotton fabric and to protect the consumer from microorganism’s
contamination. Certain plant extracts with good antimicrobial properties have
been applied on cotton, bamboo, and soya bean fabrics and assessed for
antimicrobial properties. (N Gokarneshan*, U Dhatchayani, R Malathi, Aathira, R
Santhip and Archana Vishnu)

“Bed sores” owe
their name to the observation that patients who were bedridden and not properly
repositioned would often develop ulcerations or sores on their skin, typically
over bony prominences. These bed sores, which result from prolonged pressure,
are also called “decubitus ulcers,” “pressure sores,” “skin breakdown,” and
“pressure ulcers.” They are associated with adverse health outcomes and high
treatment costs. This study focuses on developing herbal finish to prevent bed
sores. For this purpose, functional finishing was utilized to produce a bedsore
preventing fabric. Plain weave cotton fabric was dyed by using herbal extracts,
dried, and then cured. Two samples in different ratios (1:?2 and 2:?1) of two
herbal extracts (Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits) were prepared with
and without binder (chitosan). Air permeability, wicking ability, Drop Test for
absorbency, and antibacterial properties were examined for those samples. Based
on the results, fabric dyed with Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in
the ratio of 2:?1 with chitosan is determined as the most promising combination
for the final product. ( Ajoy K. Sarkar., 2014)

Neem leaves
(Azadirachta Indica) have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium
nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal
and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an
excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen
and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to
evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. (Naveen Kumar Chundran,
Ike Rostikawati Husen, Irra Rubianti)

Herbs have been
integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back
at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be
explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects.
More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and
evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on
better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information
concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare
or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal
plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of
different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve
disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding
the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound
healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review
is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for
effective treatment of minor wounds. (Tina Maver MPharm,, Uroš Maver PhD,
MPharm, Karin Stana Kleinschek PhD, Dragica M. Smrke PhD, MD, Samo Kreft PhD,
MPharm., 2015)

Medical textile is
an emerging area with numerous uses, Medical textile products are produced from
high performance textile materials that are manufactured primarily for their
functional and performance properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative
properties. Studies have carried out in the present work to impart the
properties of WOUND HEALING and antibacterial finishes in medical textiles
producing a “MEDICATED HERBAL BANDAGE”. An eco-friendly natural finish has been
prepared from the medicinal herb –extracts to achieve the properties of wound
healing and antimicrobial finish. Ethanol extract of the herbs were directly
applied on % on cotton gauze by pad- dry- cure method. Padding was carried out
in padding mangle at pressure of 3psi to get a pickup of 100% on weight of
fabric. Drying and curing was carried out at 80 degree Celsius for 3 mints
respectively. Thus the medicated herbal bandage has been prepared. The treated
and untreated samples are tested using test methods like SEM, FTIR and WOUND

Herbs play a
significant role in pharmaceutical industries as lifesaving drugs. This calls
for the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical
structures and novel mechanisms of action. The present study focuses on
imparting antimicrobial finish to the denim fabric using natural herbal
extracts. (American Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2014 2 (1), pp
26-30.DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-2-1-5)



The wound dressing consists of Primary
layer and wound contact layer, both are joined by adhesives and finally it is
covered by releasable label. Primary layer is Spunbond -meltblown–spunbond
(SMS) nonwoven white fabric primarily composed of polypropylene filaments. The
SMS fabric is considered to possess good filtration ability. Wound Contact
layer is a Spunlace nonwoven fabric composed of viscose and polyester. This
material is placed on to the primary layer which helps to adhere in the wound.

In this paper two
herbal components have been identified based on the fact that these components
aid in the process of wound healing by providing an anti-microbial and
anti-bacterial effect. The herbal components are extracted from neem and
Curcumin as the above herbal components have been identified as the
complementary constituents in promoting accelerated wound healing. All these
components are in powder form, which are taken in known weights and are mixed
thoroughly in lukewarm distilled water. There different solutions were prepared

1. 50% : 50% Neem:

2. 70% : 30% Neem:

3. 30% : 70% Neem
: Curcumin


The test solutions were allowed to
settle down in the room temperature with intermittent shaking given to those
containers containing the solutions. In the subsequent stages, the herbal
constituent was modified due to reduced shelf life of the herbal impregnated
wound contact layer, as the fabric structure developed fungus/mildew at room
temperature. In addition, the fine particles of herbal constituent also
produced very rough fabric surface. Therefore, the herbal solution was filtered
twice to remove coarse particles and a clear and fine herbal solution free from
undissolved particles was obtained. A mild colorless clear liquid, 8% of Cross
linking agent that is soluble in water was used as a preservative to increase
shelf life of the dressing. The following combinations were explored:


Various types of
textile substrates primarily composed of nonwoven fabric free from lint and
hypoallergenic to skin are proposed for the study. The wound contact layer
reinforced on to the textile substrate is a liquid repellent nonwoven fabric.
The contact layer is incorporated with desired composition of neem and curcumin
extracts, the composition and method of application is carried out using
padding mangle method. However several percentage of composition of neem and
curcumin would be evaluated for its performance. The primary layer is given an
adhesive coating on the side which adheres on to the skin. The wound contact
side of the dressing is protected using release label. The wound dressing is a
flexible adhesive based dressing which can be applied on to various contours of
body. The wound contact layer of each dressing is protected from external
environment with adhesive release paper. The dressing is proposed to be sealed
and packed in a transparent pouch which allows the user to examine the dressing
prior to application.

Procedure for
Wound Dressing Preparation

The primary layer was cut according to
the required length. That layer is a non-woven material produced by SMS
technique. And the wound contact layer is cut according to the primary layer
width non-woven material produced by spunlace technique and reinforced those
two layers by using adhesive and finally the releasable lable is pasted on the
surface to protece the wound dressing


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