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Universal design is defined as the design of products
and environments to be used by the majority of people, to the higher extent,
without discriminating any one. The main objective of
universal design is to make  life easier for
every person through creating products, developing communications, and  building the condusive environment to the

Once universal
design principles
are employed, usually products and environments satisfy  the needs and wants  of potential users with a wide of different
traits. Therefore, through the recognition of their needs, the customers feel
that, they are part and parcel of the product or environments.Also it can be applied to any product or context, by putting
into account distinct characteristics of people. For example the website of SAUT,
 the font size, color, picture, videos
and structure  of the content, should
appeal to potential users, due to the fact that, their needs have been
satisfied.The good universal design goes
hand in hand with its principles in creating product (website) and its environment.

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The following are the process that is normally used in
the application ofuniversal design:


Determine the
application, this involves identifying of the product or
environment, where you want to concentrate and apply universal design. This
will enable the designer to know well, how the application is all about, what
issues need to be incorporated. Identify
the scope. This examine the total number of users of the service

And check on various characteristics of the expected
stakeholders, who can visit the site.

clients. Through designing process, the designer has to engage people with
different characteristics in all stages of the development, performance, and assessment
of the application.


guidelines or standards. Wherebyin designing good website, you have to review
other related websites which will guide him or her on creating the best work.


Employ of guidelines. After
passing through various materials, then the designer is capable of using the
guidelines practically in forming the new website.


Plan for
accommodations, where by the designer has to think critically on how his or her
audience will be satisfied due to their needs and wants.


Train and
support.This involves that, a designer should seek for training and support in
terms of receiving ideas, opinions, advices, experiences, and professional
knowledge from different stakeholders.


Evaluate. Website
should be evaluated after specific period of time through comments from
variousgroups of users.


Accessibility in design process

implies that,  individuals  who face 
disabilities are able tobe aware, understand, navigate, and interact
with websites, that they can share equally without obstacles.

Accessibility is vital for
developers and companies that need to build high quality websites and web

Web has to be accessible in provision of equal access and equal chance to
people with different abilities.

following are the examples of Web Accessibility

Alternative Text for
Images, usually
websites create barrier to readers, if they display alternative text with
images to blind people, but if there is a screen reader that reads aloud the
information on a page.

Input, usually some individuals are
incapable of using a mouse, involving
users for a long time have inadequate control of the device. An accessible
website does not base on the mouse.

Centered Design is the process of designing hard ware and software tools such
as websites, products application’s user interface by considering understanding
the user’s attitudes, beliefs and environments. It is important to understand
who will be using the system. Therefore, users are not required to adapt their
behaviors and attitudes in order to learn and use a particular system. Using
User Centered Design to a system design offers a more effective, adequate and
user-friendly familiarity for the user which is likely to upturn sales and
client loyalty.

 The design is grounded upon identifying
targeted customers. A web designer must understand the customers,
responsibilities and location. The powerful force behind all design is
considering the user the product. This principle also is the foremost and very
crucial in User Centered Design. A web designer, designs the product with much
attention on the way client do things today and the way they want to do things
differently in the future, in this way design has groundwork. In
understandingclients, User Centered Designcrews must understand their current
and future tasks, the tools they employ to carry out the tasks, what problems
they are experiencing with the tools, and the key characteristics of the
environment in which they carry out their task. It is important to understand
why, how and in which context they will use the interface.

user and socio-cultural requirements, determining the requirements of the user
interface is very important as it satisfies the needs of the target users. It
involves determining the market segments to target, the customers and their
characteristics within these segments, and the solution the majority of
customers within the segment use today, that is, the competition for the
offering. User Centered Design must fit into a company’s business strategy and
demonstrably add financial value. It is critical to have this information in
place at the start of a project.

Designing solutions
to the user that is not plural butnumerous
designs encouraging creativity. User Centered Design focuses on the design of
the overall customer experience and states that everything a customer sees,
hears, and touches is designed together by a multidisciplinary team. It often
makes sense to create a few satisfactory alternatives using prototyping tool
for example and to choose the best one. A critical ingredient of User Centered
Designing is that the design strength must focus on the total solution and all
aspects of the customer experience. That means   easy to set up,
easy to learn or easy to use.

designs against requirements which involve real customer testing not just
convincing demonstrations. At this stage the web developers are able to execute
and examine the mental, selection of the best design option, removing usability
errors, repeat the designing and improve user experience. One
example of a usability test performed by a team can be usability test of an
application that enables computer salespeople to configure large mainframe systems.


What is user interface design?

interface design refers to the visual layout of the elements that a user might
interact with in a website, or technological product. This could be the control
buttons of a radio, or the visual layout of a webpage. User interface designs
must not only be attractive to potential users, but must also be functional and
created with users in mind.

The following are factors
to consider in  interface designing:

The interface should be simple
and clear, This
means that your website have to be directly understood to the client, then the
purpose of the website have to be clear in order to facilitate the client to
use it. If your browse is too complex it leads the users to leave immediately
to another browser.

Create stability and use
familiar user interface elements. When user found common elements in your website or browser, makes users feel more
comfortable and easily interact.  Therefore, avoid ambiguity language,
layout and design throughout the site in order to facilitate efficiency.

Be focused in page
layout.  Consider the spatial relationships between items on the
page and structure the page based on importance. Careful placement of items can
help draw attention to the most important pieces of information and can aid
scanning and readability.

Tactically use color and
texture. You can cause direct attention toward or redirect
attention away from items using color, light, contrast, and texture to your
advantage. Then, it should attract the user in order to stay in your page. 

Use typography to create
hierarchy and clarity. Carefully consider how you use typeface. Different sizes,
fonts, and arrangement of the text to help increase scan ability, legibility
and readability.

Make sure that the system
communicates what’s happening.  All the time inform
your users about place, actions, errors or any changes you made in your
website. The user feels more comfortable when there is notification so as to be
aware on it,  in which it can reduce
confusion to them.

Think about the defaults. In
designing your web interface the most important thing to consider is the
anticipates of your clients in order to understand the information available in
your website design.
















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