Understanding the logistics of an organisation is a complexmatter, this is because it involves people who can be highly unpredictable.
Byhaving a thorough understanding of your business, you will be able to maximiseefficiency and productivity throughout. In this essay, I will discuss keyelements of linked to the organisational behaviour of a gym: BFGym, located inthe city centre of Birmingham. The key issues I will discuss will be thereasons behind lack of motivation in the workforce, styles and implications ofdiffering leadership styles, the advantages and disadvantages of BFGym’scurrent bureaucratic structure and organisational stress felt by the staff andhow to combat this.Between the staff at BFGym, thereare various factors contributing towards a lack of motivation. Herzberg’s 2factor theory suggests that jobs have two key characteristics: Motivatingfactors and Hygiene factors (Herzberg, 1987). Motivating factors have thepotential to increase satisfaction and therefore motivate the worker.
Factorsinclude: achievement, recognition for achievements, responsibility and personalgrowth potential (Herzberg, 1987). These factors are intrinsic and provideenjoyment for the worker. Hygiene factors do not increase satisfaction, insteadthey reduce dissatisfaction.
These factors are extrinsic and are performed inorder to obtain a specific gain, they include: pay, working conditions and jobstatus (Herzberg, 1987). A reason that Philip is feeling demotivated and upsetis due to recent removal of the staff breakout room. In relation to Herzberg’stwo factor theory, the lack of motivation arising from this is due to theabsence of hygiene factors in the working environment. Staff at BFGym do nothave a designated area in which they can take a break in private, this cancause dissatisfaction because the staff feel as if their needs are notprioritised and unimportant. In additionto this the lack of motivating factors present in the workplace is also acontributing factor.
Management do not allow for staff to experience personalgrowth, the leadership style is very autocratic where Kate makes the decisionsand expects the staff to follow without question and in some cases makingchanges without consulting instructors. BFGym’s latest recruit Nick has begun tofeel that he is being unfairly treated and that his co-workers are takingadvantage of him, by leaving him with the more unpopular shifts. Adam’s equitytheory is process theory of motivation, its focus is aimed at the individualsthought process, rather than external factors contributing towards motivationand is therefore subjective (King etal., 2015). Adam’s theory suggests that if an employee feels as if they arebeing unfairly treated or unequal to their co-workers, their morale andmotivation will be low (Adams, 1963). In relation to BFGym, Nick is feeling alack of motivation because he feels that his contribution to the gym inrelation to his reward are inequitable, this is emphasised by his lack ofenergy to resolve the issues raised by Philip in the group meeting. On thecontrary, Adam’s equity theory cannot be used to explain Nick’s lack ofmotivation in isolation, this is largely due to the theory’s subjective manner.
Leadership is the ability of anindividual to influence, motivate and enable others to contribute towards theeffectiveness and success of the business in which they work for (House, 2004).Kate’s role at BFGym is the head manager. Using Lewin’s (1939) approach toleadership, Kate fits the profile for an autocratic leader. This involveshaving centralised decision making, shown in the case by role in assigning hersubordinates to classes and sessions that she has organised, in addition tothis it is expected that all workers below Kate in the organisational hierarchyare expected to follow her without question. For Kate this means decisions canbe made quickly, however it is likely to affect morale and motivation in theworkplace and creativity and personal growth is restricted.
Philip does nothave an official management role within BFGym and is a class instructor. Philipshows traits of a leader, where he is able to organise and lead a group meetingto discuss solutions for the problems that have been raised. He shows traits ofa democratic style of leadership, which allows for a participation between thegroup (Lewin et al., 1939). Traits included being able to take lead of thegroup and the discussion whilst encouraging involvement from all members of thegroup, this allows for a wider span of ideas to be introduced. Kate’s current leadership style is not themost efficient and productive as it is shown to be affecting the behaviour ofher staff, if Kate’s leadership style was to be more situational, it is likelythat productivity in the gym could be maximised.
Situational leadershipinvolves adapting the style of leadership to meet the needs of the situation(Hersey et al. 1969). Models such as Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s (1958) continuum of leadership highlight the proportion ofauthority by the manager and freedom of subordinates needed to perform a task.The advantage of Kate using such a model will include allowing her staff toorganise their own classes and sessions, thereby allowing personal growth toflourish, it also allows Kate’s workload to be reduced, which can contribute towardsimproving her motivation.Bureaucracy refers to the formalstructure and procedures that facilitates the management of the organisation (King et al.
, 2015). Bureaucracy can be identifiedby various components, these include: Hierarchical structure, this shows thestructure of the business and highlights the span of control within theorganisation. This shows chains of command between managers and their relevantsubordinates. At BFGym, Kate is at the top of the organisational hierarchy andis therefore responsible for overseeing all 50 employees at BFGym, this is asfar as her span of control is spread. As Kate’s span of control increases, thiswill stretch her abilities and responsibilities leading to indiscipline anddisorganisation in the working environment (King et al., 2015). In order toprevent this, Kate should delegate her workload to her subordinates and alterBFGyms hierarchy making it taller. This means that she is able to spread herworkload to her employees, allowing her to reduce her workload, in addition tothis, by delegating work to her employees she is able to empower them with asense of responsibility.
According to Herzberg’s (1987) 2 factor theory, thiswill act as a motivating factor for the staff at the gym, contributing towards toimproving staff morale and productivity. Another component are the rules andprocedure in place. The aim of having these is to promote standardisationthroughout the organisation and is implemented at all levels of the hierarchy(King et al., 2015).
Rules can be set by the local and national government toensure a minimum level of standardisation. BFGym is likely to have stricthealth and safety policies in place to ensure all of its employees andcustomers are protected within the gym. BFGym’s bureaucratic structurehelps to identify clear roles within the working environment as well asensuring impersonal fairness. This means that there are equal opportunitiesthrough rules and procedures to allow workers to be treated with equality andfairness (Du Gay, 2000). On the contrary, a bureaucratic structure can lead to’Red Taping’ within the gym. This is where the rules and procedures set inplace by management distract workers, meaning they are unable to complete whatactually needs to be done, thereby creating extra work.
Selye (1987) defines stress as “adynamic activity wherein an individual is confronted with an opportunity,constraint or demand”. The staff at BFGym are experiencing various forms ofstress. The source of the stress is linked to the removal of the breakout room,under the engineering model, this has caused stress due to the poor design ofthe working environment. The staff at BFGym do not have a designated area inwhich they can rest and as a result are frequently feeling drained and out of energy,in addition to this, the stress caused from this, is also affecting the culturewithin the organisation. Philip feels as if it is affecting the quality ofsocial interaction and other trainers feel as if it affecting their performancetowards customers. The JobDemand-Resource model identify the two elements that determine whetheremployees feel stress (Demerouti and Nachreiner, 2001).
If the physical or socialaspects of the job are perceived to be overwhelming this can cause stress, Nickis shown to be overwhelmed by the social aspects at the gym, where he feels asif he is being taken advantage of. Inorder to combat organisational stress, there are several ways in whichmanagement can intervene. Primary intervention involves trying to solve theproblem of stress at the core, this can be done by adjusting the stressfulcomponents. For example, at BFGym, Kate could bring back the breakout room forher staff, providing them with an area in which they can rest.
On the otherhand, secondary intervention can be implemented. This involves providingresources to help cope with the stress, therefore instead of providing abreakout room for staff to rest, Kate could provide her trainers withrelaxation classes. In thisessay, I have discussed two differing theories of motivation and applied themto give reasoning towards the lack of motivation experienced by the staff ofBFGym. I found that Herzberg’s two factor theory and Adam’s equity theory werethe most relevant. I explained and identified the lack motivating factors atthe gym and how they contributed towards reducing satisfaction and thereforethe lack of motivation. In addition to this, I explained how Adam’s equitytheory suggested that individual thought processes should be taken into accountwhen attempting to motivate workers, in particular that each worker’s thoughtprocess is unique.
I identified both Kate and Philip as leader figures at BFGymand began to identify the dominant styles of leadership in which they possess.I found that Kate, the head of BFGym had an autocratic style of leadership,where she was central to all decisions made. This has shown to have affectedthe whole organisation through to its employees level of motivation to thebureaucratic organisation structure that is present. I also found that Philip,an unofficial leader, shows traits of a democratic style of leadership, whichinvolved participation from his co-workers.
In addition to this I discussed howKate could improve her leadership style in order to have a more positive andefficient presence in the gym. I recommended a situational leadership style,such as Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum of leadership. This involves Katealtering her style of leadership to suit the task. From the case study, I wasable to identify the key components to BFGym’s bureaucratic structure. Thisinvolves the hierarchy in place, which showed the span of control across thegym’s 50 employees as well as the rules and procedures in place. From this Iwas able to discuss the advantages and disadvantages that arised from BFGymupholding such a structure.
Overall I found that the advantages outweighed thedisadvantages, however in order to improve it, I suggested that Kate, increasethe layers in the organisational hierarchy and delegate more work to her staff.The key issue between the staff at the gym were linked to causing stress. I wasable to identify the key factors that caused the stress, these includedengineering factors which causes stress as a result of poor design in theworking environment, such as the removal of the staff breakout room.
Inaddition to this, I offered solutions to resolve the issues. I recommended bothprimary and secondary intervention strategies. I found that in order to resolveorganisational stress issues in the short run, secondary intervention is moresuccessful, whereas in the long run, primary intervention is recommended.