Types of Vaccines1. Vaccinia (smallpox) 2.Measles, mumps, rubella (MMRcombined vaccine)3.
Varicella (chickenpox) 4.Influenza (nasal spray)5.Rotavirus.6.Zoster (shingles) 7.Yellow fever.There are many othertypes of the vaccines likeHepatitis A,B etcPolio FluMeaslesMumpsShinglesRetroVirusChicken PoxYellow FeverRebella etc Scientists take many approachesto designing vaccines.
These approaches are based on information about thegerms (viruses or bacteria) the vaccine will prevent, such as how it infectscells and how the immune system responds to it. Practical considerations, suchas regions of the world where the vaccine would be used, are also importantbecause the strain of a virus and environmental conditions, such as temperatureand risk of exposure, may be different in various parts of the world. Thevaccine delivery options available may also differ geographically. Today thereare five main types of vaccines that infants and young children commonlyreceive: • Live, attenuated vaccines fight viruses.
These vaccines contain aversion of the living virus that has been weakened so that it does not causeserious disease in people with healthy immune systems. Because live, attenuatedvaccines are the closest thing to a natural infection, they are good teachersfor the immune system. Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include measles,mumps,In other cases,which protects against diphtheria, the initial series of four shots thatchildren receive as part of their infant immunizations helps them buildimmunity. After a while, however, that immunity begins to wear off. At thatpoint, a “booster ” dose is needed to bring immunity levels back up. For some vaccines,studies shown that more than one dose needed for everyone to develope the bestimmune response. For example, afterone dose of the MMR vaccine, some people may not develop enough antibodies tofight off infection.
The second dose helps make sure that almost everyone isprotected.Finally, in the caseof the flu vaccine, adults and children need to get a dose every year. Children6 months through 8 years old who have never gotten the flu vaccine in the pastor have only gotten one dose in past years need two doses the first year theyare vaccinated against flu for best protection. Then, annual flu shots areneeded because the disease-causing viruses may be different from year to year.
Every year, the flu vaccine is designed to prevent the specific viruses thatexperts predict will be circulatingThere are manydiseases which can not have vaccines like HIV/AIDSMechanism of theVaccine Action Vaccines help the develop ofthe immunity by imitating the infection. This type of infection, however, doesnot cause illness, but it does cause the immune system to produce T-lymphocytesand antibodies. Sometimes, after getting a vaccine, the imitation infection cancause minor symptoms, such as fever.
Such minor symptoms are normal and shouldbe expected as the body builds immunity. Once the imitation infection goesaway, the body is left with a supply of “memory” T-lymphocytes, as well asB-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that disease in the future.However, it typically takes a few weeks for the body to produce T-lymphocytesand B-lymphocytes after vaccination. Therefore, it is possible that a personwho was infected with a disease just before or just after vaccination coulddevelop symptoms and get a disease, because the vaccine has not had enough timeto provide protection.