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Types of Vaccines

1. Vaccinia (smallpox) 2.Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR
combined vaccine)

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3.Varicella (chickenpox) 4.Influenza (nasal spray)

6.Zoster (shingles) 7.Yellow fever.

There are many other
types of the vaccines like

Hepatitis A,B etc







Chicken Pox

Yellow Fever

Rebella etc

               Scientists take many approaches
to designing vaccines. These approaches are based on information about the
germs (viruses or bacteria) the vaccine will prevent, such as how it infects
cells and how the immune system responds to it. Practical considerations, such
as regions of the world where the vaccine would be used, are also important
because the strain of a virus and environmental conditions, such as temperature
and risk of exposure, may be different in various parts of the world. The
vaccine delivery options available may also differ geographically. Today there
are five main types of vaccines that infants and young children commonly
receive: • ­Live, attenuated vaccines fight viruses. These vaccines contain a
version of the living virus that has been weakened so that it does not cause
serious disease in people with healthy immune systems. Because live, attenuated
vaccines are the closest thing to a natural infection, they are good teachers
for the immune system. Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include measles,

In other cases,
which protects against diphtheria, the initial series of four shots that
children receive as part of their infant immunizations helps them build
immunity. After a while, however, that immunity begins to wear off. At that
point, a “booster ” dose is needed to bring immunity levels back up.

For some vaccines,
studies shown that more than one dose  needed for everyone to develope the best
immune response.

For example, after
one dose of the MMR vaccine, some people may not develop enough antibodies to
fight off infection. The second dose helps make sure that almost everyone is

Finally, in the case
of the flu vaccine, adults and children need to get a dose every year. Children
6 months through 8 years old who have never gotten the flu vaccine in the past
or have only gotten one dose in past years need two doses the first year they
are vaccinated against flu for best protection. Then, annual flu shots are
needed because the disease-causing viruses may be different from year to year.
Every year, the flu vaccine is designed to prevent the specific viruses that
experts predict will be circulating

There are many
diseases which can not have vaccines like HIV/AIDS

Mechanism of the
Vaccine Action

                  Vaccines help the develop of
the immunity by imitating the infection. This type of infection, however, does
not cause illness, but it does cause the immune system to produce T-lymphocytes
and antibodies. Sometimes, after getting a vaccine, the imitation infection can
cause minor symptoms, such as fever. Such minor symptoms are normal and should
be expected as the body builds immunity. Once the imitation infection goes
away, the body is left with a supply of “memory” T-lymphocytes, as well as
B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that disease in the future.
However, it typically takes a few weeks for the body to produce T-lymphocytes
and B-lymphocytes after vaccination. Therefore, it is possible that a person
who was infected with a disease just before or just after vaccination could
develop symptoms and get a disease, because the vaccine has not had enough time
to provide protection.

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