countries have submitted their Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions to the UNFCCC. Accordingly, many SSA countries are
reducing their CO2 emissions
and use of ozone-depleting substances. Although forest policies in SSA countries have increasingly incorporated sustainable forest
investment for forest development and the environment remains low.
environment agencies in SSA
countries (Uganda, Kenya, Madagascar, Burkina Faso, Congo and Togo, etc.)
have prepared ‘National Conservation Strategies’, ‘National
Environmental Action Plans’, ‘Forestry
Action Plans’ and ‘Plans
of Action to Combat Desertification’, often with the support of international organizations that include the ‘International Union for Conservation of Nature’, ‘Food and Agriculture Organization’, ‘United
Nations Environment Programme’, ‘United
Nations Development Programme’, ‘United
Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office’ and the ‘World Bank’1.
these plans often run parallel to overall national development plans and are
not linked or integrated with other economic and sectoral plans. Many of them
therefore lack the full involvement and support of key ministries whose
cooperation is needed to ensure effective
implementation. Some of them have other inherent weaknesses, with recommendations that are too general
and lacking such strategic details as the assignment of a specific implementing
agency, time targets, detailed cost estimates and funding
arrangements. Most also focus exclusively on national issues, without taking
into account the transboundary implications of the proposed actions.
Fertilizers and improved seeds
A number of
countries—including Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali,
Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia have subsidized fertilizer and
improved seeds in efforts to increase farm crop yield level fertilizer application. Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia subsidies were
targeted to either the poor or priority crops and reached many farmers. About 65% of farm households in Malawi benefited from
the subsidy program. Likewise, about 95% of the 2.7 million rural
households in Kenya benefited from the subsidy program that targeted the
universally grown maize crop.