“Tourism comprises the activities of personstraveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not morethan one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.” (Unwto.
org,2017).In this paper, Iwill obviously talk about tourism following the definition above but morespecifically about the impacts, negative and positive, of tourism for theeconomies of the countries and how the businesses hospitality evolved torespond to the tourists needs and requirements.Nowadays, the waypeople are traveling is changing in more than a way especially when we have acloser look at the Generation Y, commonly called Millennials. Millennials areindeed different from prior generations in a number of ways Pewsocialtrends.org(2014). Anyway, let’s focus on something bigger, a key point for this modernsociety when we refer to tourism, the sustainable tourism.”The sustainable tourism is the tourism which developsas quickly as possible, taking account of current accommodation capacity, localpopulation and environment… The development of tourism and new investment inthe tourism sector should not detract from tourism itself.
” (Bramwell,B., Van Der Straaten, J., Goytia Prat, A., Richards, G., 1996).After some explanations about sustainable tourism,it’s maybe welcome to get into something more sensitive, the mass tourism.
Who never visiteda place like Ayia Napa with that beach called Nissi Beach or a monument locatedin an urban area as the Eiffel Tower in Paris? What’s the point between thosetwo places? Well, the attraction they are facing from the tourists resulting onan overcrowded place. This is called the mass tourism; this phenomenon consistson having a large amount of people at the same place at the same time. According to theinternet, the tourist arrivals in 1950 were around 25milions but now expects toreach 1.8 billion by 2030.
(sustainabletourism.net, 2014)Something thatprobably played a major role in this fast growing evolution is the developmentof the mean of transportation, allowing many people to move at the same and amuch inferior time that it used to be with the new aircrafts that are createdper example. The innovations in the field of technology are also important, infact, today it is really easy to communicate rapidly with the internet (phone,4G, etc.
) but mass tourism is a delicate topic to deal with because of all thepros and cons. First, we have thetourists that come to the city and stay at hotels in which they pay taxesduring their time there. They bring wealth with them, they spend money in manyway and it offers many job opportunities with hotels, restaurants (cooks,receptionists, cleaning ladies,..
). It is also good for the agriculture andmanufactures that have the chance to hire employees due to the incomingtravelers that need to eat, those help the economy of the country they arevisiting.Second, the masstourists with what better examples that the cruise boats. They unship innumbers as invaders, thousands and thousands of tourists getting into thedestinations mixed to the other tourists that are already there staying inhotels or by their own visiting for a day.Unfortunately forthe locals, the money doesn’t completely belong to them because of the bigcompanies around (Thomas Cook, TUI, Hilton,.
.) that are based somewhere else inthe world, here are the leakages. The leakages concern the money spend in thedestination but which leaks out to the country where the tour operator’s headoffice is per example (Class material, 2017).And last, youngertravelers that come during spring break or summer only there to have a goodtime and party with their friends, we can use Lloret de Mar in Spain, Ibiza inthe Balearic Islands or even Ayia Napa here in Cyprus as good examples.Those are some ofthe main issues regarding the types of tourists as well as the environmentaland social impacts that are following.
So after thedifferent profiles of tourist (of course those categories are not completelyaccurate and can vary) comes the social and cultural effects that are mostlynegative. The higher the number of tourist the worst can be the relations withthe locals. In fact, everyone who already travel will agree on saying that onceyou go out of your country, you get into a different world with a differentculture/tradition and behaviors. The party animals can irritate the locals bythe way they behave in the streets after the parties are over as well as theother tourists that might ignore the “local dress code” and revealing too much skinespecially in places of worship. It would be good to think tourism bring thecultures together however this is rare.As much as thesocial and cultural impact there is another major point, the environmental impactsof tourism. There are not many good impacts but it also depends on the amountof tourist in the destination. In case of mass tourism, it’s mostly negative.
To be able to respond to the demand and appeal, the destinations have topropose experiences and it’s usually in a bad way for the environment. Someexamples could be the clearance of important habitats for animals as forest toprovide building sites for hotels (South America,..
) then the overuse of waterresources and pollution of sea, lakes and rivers by rubbish and sewage due tothe high come and go in the destination without forgetting the air and noisepollution. (Hedlund, T., 2011)Then it’s understandable to share the fed up of theinhabitants for all the inconvenience they face but in some way they have a lotof benefits coming from the tourism industry and they would maybe struggle in ahard way without it.
And it’s also realistic to say that we can’t stop touristsfrom traveling but there are different kinds of travelers, even in mass tourismthere is exceptions, most don’t really care but some do care about theirimpacts regarding the destinations they are going to. Earlier, a briefintroduction regarding the way millennials are different from previousgenerations has been given. In fact, they start to think about their impact,their role in the society and the way they travel.
The generation Y is lookingfor a better and respectful future regarding environment, culture and locals,something sustainable. The sustainabletourism is about re-focusing and adapting to do so a balance must be foundbetween limits and usage, for that we must go for long-term and think about theinterests of all stakeholders including indigenous people, local communities,visitors, industry and government. (Sustainabletourism.net 2014) To conclude, I thinkregulations should be established to still allow people to travel but also topreserve all the cultural riches we actually have for the many years to come.This way, it will not only be better for tourists but also for the locals whichwill not be fed up regarding the tourists and their behaviors. That’s why it isimportant to decrease the mass tourism for the profit of the sustainabletourism, it’s vital to start regulations now before it’s too late and followthe example of the ministry of culture in Peru which vote to decrease the dailynumber of visitors on the Machu Picchu as a first step to preserve that uniqueand beautiful site recognize as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO.