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(1996) Inferred that
Further and Higher Education Act (1992) support the Further Education
Funding Council (FEFC) to take regard of the requirements of students with
disabilities by providing additional funding to individual colleges. In this
way FEFC encourages students with disabilities to opt for higher educational
programs. These initiatives require individual institutions to competitively
bid for money to fund provision for students with disabilities.

and Hall (1999) found that disabilities in higher
education depends on good understanding, mind-set and acquaintance about disability
among staff and students more  than the
institutional policies.

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& Hartas, (2008 In recent years the number of students
with disability are interested in attending higher education is increasing.
Still then they have barriers in accessing and participating in higher
education courses.

et al. (2002) Pointed out that students with learning
difficulties in higher education should be taken care at three levels namely –
personal, organizational/institutional and political/ideological. Personal in
terms of providing counseling services and making students with disabilities to
understand the prospectus of the program, explaining the new teaching methods
and other necessaries related to the higher education. Organizational (HEI) in
terms of training the staff and modifying the physical environment. Finally,
ideological in terms current political policies which changes from time to
time, striving for equality and making them understand about the emerging
opportunities and entitlement to education.

et al. (2001)   Listed few obstacles in recruiting students
with disabilities in higher education such as diversity, lifestyle, non
friendly to the surroundings and legal obligations. In his study, a number of Heads
stated that they did not actively recruit students with disabilities although
they ”don’t turn them away when they are registered”. In certain subjects,
such as engineering, it was said that, for safety reasons, students with
disabilities were being discouraged from registering, raising issues regarding
equality of opportunity and participation of students with disability in


2008.   At times staff may exhibit, either
implicitly or explicitly, negative attitudes regarding students with a particular
disability. They intend to have a negative attitude towards student with a disability
and vice versa – this affect the studies of student with a disability. Teachers
with positive attitude and flexible in teaching methods can handle students with
disability in a better way. Perceived power differences can be improved through
the development of a good rapport with students, having tolerance, good communication
skills, a flexible and concerned approach, an understanding of nature of different
disabilities and the different needs of students.

Dutta et al., (2009)

 In spite of changes in many Western countries’
legislation and the development of programs for students with disabilities, in
recognition of the importance of higher education for individuals, families,
and society at large, low enrolment and high first-year dropout have been found
and initiatives have been taken according to the difficulties faced by the students
with disabilities. Below are the cases which the students with disabilities
often face it. Low enrolment and high dropout can be understood as the result
of inadequate accessibility of higher education institutions, lack of support,
adverse social attitudes and social isolation, as well as low financial

Rimmerman & Araten-Bergman,
(2005). A public committee in Israel examined the
implementation of the Equal Rights for Persons with Disabilities Act, emphasized
the crucial role of higher education in the inclusion of people with
disabilities into society and in employment. Israel’s National Insurance
Institute allocated resources to making academic institutions accessible, as
well as granting individual students with disabilities scholarships and support
services. The recent study was initiated to estimate the outcome of these
social and legal developments on the inclusion of students with disabilities in
higher education. The improvement in the research, for the students with
disabilities to participate in a wide range of student activities, in addition
to conventional academic outcome.

(Burgstahler & Cory, 2008)  When Anti-discrimination legislation for
students of disabilities was established and it pointed out the social barriers
faced by them in the day to day life. Anti-discriminatory legislative caveats
specifies that society and educational institutions should take special care in
serving the students of disabilities various requirements.

2007; Watson, Kearns, Grant & Cameron, 2000

In general students
with disability do not possess the context of multi- lingual, when it comes to
higher education and surveys suggest the importance of the major role played by
this area. The key point for the development of student disability is to
identify and understand the view and experience of disabled students,
specifically in academic theory. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) should
take steps in understanding the obstacles of disabled students.

and Ngoepe’s study (2016)

Stated that students
with disabilities were not fulfilled with a purpose-built library service unit
which was established with international best practice. Only very little
material has been translated into accessible formats. Moreover, only one
librarian was consigned to administer and run the entire library service for
all the students with disabilities.


et al., (2002)

It is unenviable
(difficult) to consider disabled students as a separate group, as they fall
along a continuum of learner differences and share similar challenges and
obstacles that all normal students face in higher education. At times the
obstacles faced by disabled students are more when compared to the normal
students, but sometimes not. To avoid these issues,  the main beneficiaries of disability legislation
should take necessary steps by providing 
well-prepared handouts, instructions given in writing as well as verbally,
materials should be updated in online from time to time and different  types of assessment forms.

& Hartas, (2008)

Globally there is a
rise in the number of students with disabilities entering higher education
institutions which show the interest of disabled students. Equal opportunity
and admission for disabled students are sponsored by higher education
institutions with the policies created 
for non-discrimination by the Legislation.

et al. (2005)

Observed that UK higher
education system made changes in education system for disabled students which
attracted them for education. The changes were useful for both the staff and
students, this paved a way for an increase in number of disabled students for
UK higher education (Hopkins, 2011). Students with specific learning
difficulties (SpLD) such as dyslexia and dyspraxia shows more interest for UK
higher education in recent years.


Illustrates the
personal difficulties connected with studying disability in Higher educational
settings. A collection of legislative and policy instruments have been
specially developed to restore the difficulties connected with education for
learning disabled students.

Ebersold and Evans 2003

ecological definition should be adopted that accepts disability as “a product
of strengths and weaknesses of the individual and the environment in which
he/she functions, and not due solely to his/her intrinsic characteristics. Thus
many SWD can be successful if the learning conditions are supportive and meet
their particular needs.”


Prospects of higher
enrollment of students with disabilities have prompted academic institutes to introduce
innovative programs to meet these students needs. Special programs have been
opened for students with visual impairments, students with learning
disabilities, and students with psychiatric disabilities.

et al., (2001)

Western countries
legislation has come out with many development programs in higher education for
students with disabilities. But still then there is a low enrolment and high
first-year drop out as been found. This happens due to lack of moral support,
social isolation,  inadequate
accessibility of higher educational institutes and low financial capacity.


Long with the
supporting factors, researches have inferred that faculty attitude towards
students with disabilities plays a vital role. Faculty should understand the
point that disabled students are entirely different from one another (need,
understanding power, knowledge etc). Entire success or failure of a disabled
student depends on the teaching staff. Any negative attitude of the staff as a
very bad effect on the student. . In a survey, 50% of students with
disabilities indicated that faculty members understood their needs, but only
25% of faculty members were willing to change the material covered in their
courses to suit these students& learning needs. Most (82%) of the students
indicated that faculty members needed to learn more about disabilities.



Learning Disability
(LD) is developmental disorder typically identified in childhood. Even though
many students with LD continue to show weakness in academic skills in
adulthood.   In recent decades students with learning
disabilities shows interest in enrolling in colleges and universities as postsecondary
institutions have developed a wide range of services to meet these students’


Studies have defined
disability in different ways, hence there is no approved definition. The
subject of disability has been widely debated by scholars both inside and
outside the discrete field of disability studies. In the Preamble to the United
Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the lack of an
agreed definition is evident as signatory nations, including Australia, agree
to “Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept”

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