Together with enhancing of urbanization, as well as amelioration of living standards, the volume of solid waste is increasing in globally. Also, municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rate depends on economic development, the proportion of industrialization, public habitat, and local climate. Developing countries are the leading waste producers around the world, because of their high rate of population growth, economic expansion and rapid urbanization (World Bank, 2012). These factors are accelerating rates of MSW production. The problem of waste management has become a major social problem around the world. However, with the proper waste management system, MSW has the opportunity to become valuable resources and green energy for the society.
1.1 Waste Management
1.2.1 What is a waste?
The EU Commission, the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, and OECD give their own formal definitions; ‘waste’ means any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard (Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC art.3, par.1). However, wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials during the processing of raw materials to intermediate and final products, during the consumption of final products, and during any other human activity. Physically, it consists of the same materials as are found in useful products; it only differs from useful production by its lack of value. The lack of value in many cases can be related to the mixed and, often, unknown composition of the waste. Separating the materials in waste will generally increase their value if uses are available for these recovered materials. This inverse relationship between the degree of mixing and value is an important property of waste.
Figure 1.1 the relationship between waste and value (Source: F.R. McDougall, P.R. White, M. Franke, P. Hindle, “Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory”, 2nd Edition, 2001)
1.2.2 Entropy and waste management
Waste is an inevitable product of society. And it is mainly consisted with the non-homogeneous material. Therefore waste has higher entropy than single constituents. According to the 2nd law of thermodynamics; in an isolated system, only those processes in which entropy does not decrease can occur.
Entropy = Disorder
The reusability of waste depends on their entropic level and there are two obstacles to recycling such as;
1. Economic obstacle – currently waste entropic level discourages private activities of collection and recycling. Also, separating different component is expensive.
2. Technological obstacle – often entropy constitutes physically a barrier to recycling: it is not possible to recycle a trace component or inextricably mixed component.
Graph 1.1: Entropy level with marker price (Source: )
Graph1.2: Relationship between mixed waste and separation cost (Source: G. Vogel, “The Economics of Waste Management”, Proc. Summer School “Innovative Technologies and Environmental Impacts in Waste Management”, Rimini, 2007.)
The development of these markets will depend on the choices of environmental policy and on available instruments Organizational and managerial planning obstacle. Therefore disposal of waste needs to be carefully managed in order to avoid causing damage to the environment.
There are three fundamental methods of managing waste or pollution. One of them is command and control, and this involves the government is making laws, regulations, and standards that the producers and consumers have to follow, thus managing the waste and pollution that is generated. The second method is to raise public awareness. This method aims to motivate people through awareness, or knowledge and understanding and it has an altruistic or spiritual angle as it requires people to realize their responsibility and their wish to not harm others. The third method is the use of economic instruments. In economic instrument either financial incentives are given to the target group of the people to alter their behavior. (Geo Watch, 2015)
However, proper management of MSW is influential to eliminates adverse impacts on the environment and human health, reduce pollution, support economic development, improve the living environment and level of ecological civilization and achieve scienti?c urban development.