Todaydemand of automobiles is more due to population growth has result in greatdemand for petroleum products. With crude oil reserves estimated to last forfew decades, there have been many researcher find alternate fuels. The depletion ofcrude oil could reason a primary effect on the transportation sector. Biodieselis a clean burning alternative biofuel, which is produced from Sunflower,karanja, jatropha, waste cooking oil, thumba, soybeans, animal fats, alge etc.
These are domestic and renewable source. The extracted crude oil cannot be usedas a directly in diesel engine because it has a high viscosity; due to highviscosity of pure vegetable oils it will be responsible for high enginedeposits and lubricating oil thickening. That would reduce the fuel atomizationand increase fuel spray penetration. To create a biodiesel blend it can beblended with conventional diesel. Biodiesel is manufacture from a chemicalprocess which is known as transesterification.
Biofuels are mono alkyl estersof long chain fatty acid derived from renewable biological sources. Biofules canbe directly used in the compression ignition engine without modify of existingengine. Biodiesel fuel is a clean burning resource and it is the future of theworld. Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils,waste cooking oil is the alternative fuel to blend with diesel. Following reasonbiodiesel can be used in the engine.(1) Biodieselis made from vegetable, waste cooking oil, alge etc.(2) Biodieselcan be used without any changes in existing engine.
(3) Biodieselhave no contained sulfur, aromatic, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Much research work hasbeen done how to use vegetable oil both in its pure form and blended form. Manyproject have been shown that the usage of vegetable oils in pure form ispossible but not preferable with the advent of the industrial revolution, theuse of energy in the form of fossil fuels began, this occurred in stages, fromthe exploration of coal deposits to the exploitation of oil and natural gasbut, how long can we depend on this declining fossil fuels to run our carengine, to light our kitchen stove. The secondary viscosity of vegetable oilsand the low instability influences those atomization Furthermore spread examplefor fuel, prompting inadequate burning What’s more extreme carbon deposits,injector gagging What’s more piston ring staying. Those routines utilized todecrease viscosity need aid mixing for diesel, emulsification, pyrolysis,transesterification.Sunfloweroil can be effectively replacing diesel fuel. Application of diesel oil is inthe transport sector, agriculture form and industries for generatingelectricity, running pumps and tractors. The entire use of diesel oil can besubstituted with vegetable oil.
The properties of sunflower oil very closetogether diesel. The sunflower oil can also be converted to bio-diesel and usedin automobile sector.There arevarious advantages of using sunflower oil:(1) The cost of 1 liter sunflower oil isapprox. Rs.
80/- hence it is approx. same price of diesel.(2) Sunflower oil as fuels can providegood lubrication to the engine. (3) No toxic gases emission, nogreenhouse gas emission. (4) Sunflower seeds can be grown in waste landsand other lands with low nutritional content. The plant is also a nitrogenfixer. (5) Thedependence on sunflower oil would generate employment in rural areas.
Biofuelsare fossil fuel substitutes that can be made from a range of agricultural cropsand other sources of biomass. Any hydrocarbon fuel that is produced fromorganic matter (living or once living material) in a short period of time –days, weeks, or even months, is considered as biofuel. They are considered asan alternative source of energy Importance: · Energy security – increasing oil prices,need for alternative source of energy · To decrease greenhouse gas emission · To promote rural development Block diagram of biofuel: 1.
1Biodiesel can be used inpure biodiesel or blended with petroleum diesel. Mostly blends use B5 (5%biodiesel), B15 (5% biodiesel), and B20(20% biodiesel). B00 fuel (Pure Diesel) B10 fuel (90% Diesel + 10% Biodiesel) B15 fuel (85% Diesel + 15% Biodiesel) B20 fuel (80% Diesel + 20% Biodiesel) B25 fuel (75% Diesel + 25% Biodiesel) B30 fuel (70% Diesel + 30% BiodieselMostly use of biodieselblends up to B5 or up to B20 for practical assessment.
Using the wrong blendscan be damage the engine. Basically two type of biofuel first generation and secondgeneration bio fuels. In First generation biofuel is made from sugar, starchycrops, vegetable oil or animal fat using conventional technology likebiodiesel, biogas, bio alcohols and Second generation biofuel is produced fromsuitable feedstock like bioethanol, bio hydrogen diesel, algae fuel, cellulosefuel,wood diesel.Theestimated consumption of diesel in the world at the end of the year 2005 was960 billion liters. On the other hand, the production of biodiesel during thesame year was 4.2 billion liters . For example, assuming that 2% of diesel wasreplaced with biodiesel, it would mean an increase of 15 billion liters in thebiodiesel global production.
In biodiesel plant different type of biodiesel oiluse according to their availability, cost, efficiency and environment concern. OILS MILLION TONS Palm oil 43.20 Soy oil 38.
11 Rapeseed oil 19.38 Sunflower oil 11.45 Cotton oil 4.
94 Palm oil (seed) 5.10 Peanut oil 4.93 Coconut oil 3.
62 Olive oil 2.97 Table1.World production of vegetable oils, 2008/2009.Palm oil: Palmoil is retrieved from the Palm fruit.
The scientific name of palm oil is elaeisguineensis and its popular name: African oil palm. Columbia is largest producerof palm oil.Rapeseed or canola oil: Rapeseedis a specie oil seed in the cruciferous family. Many of the species of this familyhave been their roots, stems, flowers and seeds. When the seeds of rapeseed arecrushed we can obtain oil. Sunfloweroil: Sunflower belongs at the family of asteraceae, whose scientific name is Helianthus annuus. Sunflower oilextracted from sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is high quality nature due to lowpercentage of saturated fatty acids and a high percentage of unsaturated fattyacids.
KaranjaOil: Karanja oil is extracted from seeds of Karanja tree.Its scientific name is Pongamia glabra. Karanja seed commonly found in india.
KaranjaOil is used in agriculture and pharmacy form such as neem oil. Fossil fuels: Fossil fuels concern with any fuel that comesfrom the earth that’s generated by the fossilization method such as coal, natural gas and crude oil. Fossil fuel generateby animal, plant in the earth thousand years ago. Fossil fuel is non renewablefuel.
1.1 Advantagesof fossil fuels: A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generatemuch amounts of electricity in a single station. Fossil fuels are very easy to search. Become coal cost effective when it is used in power plants. Abundant supply of coal in power plant.
Supply of oil and gas to the power stations can be use of pipes making it a very easy task. Gases are use in power plants very efficient manner. Power stations can be constructed in almost any location that makes use of fossil fuel. This is feasible so long as much amount of fuel can be easily supply to the power plants.1.2 Disadvantages of fossil Fuels· Pollution is a major disadvantage of fossil fuels. Burningof coal produces carbon dioxide; raise the temperature in the earth cause a greenhouseeffect.
This is the primary cause of the global warming experienced by theearth today. · Burning of coal produces carbon dioxide compared to burningoil or gas. Additionally, coal also emitted Sulfur dioxide cause acidrain. · Environmentally, the mining of coal effects within thedestruction of wide regions of land. Mining this fossil fuel is also toughlives of miners. Coal mining is taken into consideration one of the mostdangerous jobs in the global.
· Power stations thatutilize coal need huge amounts of gas. In other phrases, they now not simplestneed truckloads but trainloads of coal on a regular foundation to holdoperating and producing power. This only method that coal-fired electricityplants must have reserves of coal in a large area near the plant life region. · Use of natural gas can cause ugly odors and some problemsissue with transportation.
· When become leaks of tanker, oil spill in the sea, causewater pollution and posse’s environmental hazards in the sea. Combustion of crudeoil release toxic product which cause air pollution.