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Times are changing and so are the ways how companies represent
themselves. Consumers expect much more than the company they buy products from
rather than just selling. With the globalization, the business techniques are
evolving, and more companies are embracing Corporate Social Responsibility.
Material gain is not all that matters to the customers, they demand
transparency and forwardness of the company about their policies. “Corporate
social responsibility (CSR) provides a viable strategy for the development of
business producing economic, social and environmental perks for all
stakeholders.” (lexicon.com). Knowing how important CSR is these days, a
lot of companies now focus more on social causes. An accurately executed CSR
theory can bring along different contentious advantages, such as access to
capital and markets, increased sales and profits. As essential Corporate Social
Responsibility is to any organization, it can be quite challenging to evaluate
it practically. Large corporations who are financially stable are embracing it
with ease but, smaller corporations can face issues when it comes to resources.
Since these days CSR is not limited to only the office environment or employee
contentment but, it is expanding to social causes even across borders to the
labours working at the end of a supply chain. Under such condition, there can
be a lack of resources. (Lam and Lim, 2016) A large number of resources are
required in order to effectively implement CSR.             Secondly, there have been quite a lot of confusion in
understanding the definition of CSR. The companies that are embracing CSR have
different limitations when it comes to implementation. There is no decision or
firm ground on how much CSR is enough. For example, the labours of supply chain
factories are usually deprived of their labour rights and it’s customarily
ignored if they should be treated like other employees who work on the premises
of the company. Technically, workers who produce goods for the company whether
within or outside of the premises become the responsibility of the Corporation.
This is one of the biggest issues in the corporate world that since the
garments are mostly made outside of the company in other countries, the company
limits it CSR to the employee working within the main company. This
insensitivity towards the labours results in the failure of the real purpose of
CSR. Additionally, there’s a lot of pressure from the media on the companies
who embrace CSR. Although it is beneficial for the consumers, it can be
challenging for the company to carry out CSR. Undoubtedly, the pressure from media
plays a vital role in carrying out of CSR.             It is more challenging for bigger companies such as
multinational companies, since most they tend to get most exposure from media.
This implies that they should be more careful when it comes to evaluating CSR
and other activities including philanthropy (Lindgreen et al., 2008). One of
the biggest issues with Corporate Social Responsibility is Whitewashing. Defined
as “a coordinated attempt to hide unpleasant facts, especially in a political
context” (Forbes, 2016). Corporate Social Responsibility is used as marketing tactic nowadays
and social problems as advertising. There are numerous companies that claim to
empower their workers and work for social causes without any evidence. This
makes it hard to deliver CSR effectively for the companies who are honest.
Lastly, some corporation does claim to follow Corporate Social Responsibility
but don’t make their employees aware of it. The lack of awareness about CSR
results in utter failure. A badly executed CSR strategy can have a bad impact
on the reputation of a company. In order to stay dedicated to CSR it is
important to make sure that it compliments the mission of an organisation,
goals and idea (Husted, 2003)LO2.B: On the Changing
Nature of WorkWith the advancement in technology, not only productivity and
employment are affected but, the nature of work is changing by time, too. There
are several studies that show how the work performance is changed over the
time. But, no study is required to see the obvious changes. Where it took days
to get a query answered, now it takes hours or minutes through the use of
e-mails. With this evolution of technology, Human resources professionals have
changed their approach too. Although, in order to read into the matter deeply
we must know what ‘nature of work’ really is. The term is composed of several
factors including the work type, occupations, the content of work, then comes
technology and social environment, age factor, workforce demographics. The
working hours in more corporations are becoming flexible. These companies have
stopped focusing on means of the work done rather on the result. Outsourcing is
another major factor where the developing countries are becoming more
industrialized. They look to cut the cost and outsourcing by hiring labour is
the cheapest way, but since the lower usually takes place across borders, outsourcing
very quickly turned into offshoring (Ware, 2005) It has made the work more
efficient. Freelancing and multiple jobs have put a great impact on the
changing nature of work. More corporations opt to hire temporary workers who
have unique skills to get their work done in order to make the work process
faster. It is cheaper and a lot of better for an employer to hire a part-time
or a freelancer to work on a project rather than to provide him with a
full-time job (Burke, 2006). Most importantly technology has impacted the means
of work. It has made the communication easier and made the process of
freelancing more efficient. Most of the corporations now prefer to invest in
the latest technology which results in minimizing the labour costs (Marc J,
2000). Although demographics remain to be one of the major factors to have
an impact on the nature of work. Following are the four generations working altogether
(Jiri, 2016). the Matures (born before 1946), the Baby Boomers (born 1946-64),
Generation X (born 1965-79), and Millennials (born 1980-95).  Although, this factor also gives birth to
work diversity which is a good thing these changing demographics can be a
challenge for small business. With the increase in younger workers, the
organization may have to conduct more workshops and training programs which can
have an impact on the financial resources. The millennial workers have high
expectations of their employers as compared to the Matures. With the different
age workers, the policies of the company also need to just as diverse and wide.
This age gap and even diversity can also result in communication barrier which
can slow down the work pace. Diversity and different generations undoubtedly
have several benefits but the difference between the functioning in each
generation can be challenging for the corporation (Hansen & Leuty, 2012).LO3.B: On the Value of
Training and Development Interventions in OrganisationsHuman resources department has some of the critical responsibilities
when it comes to the growth of an organization. Training and intervention
programs for employees is one of the most important factors when it comes to
growth. It is a practice which is aimed to improve the individual and
collective performance of a certain organization. In Addition to this, it is a
great tactic to improve the reputation and maintain a value in the marketplace.
These training programs include practices and workshops that prepare the
employees to perform their jobs in a better way. As mentioned above, until or
unless the employees don’t properly know about the policy and working of the
organization they are employed at, the organization cannot succeed in the full
market. It is also one of the essential factors of Corporate Social
Responsibility to hold workshops and training for the employees. For example, TESCO, a British retailer, provides informatorily
sessions and workshops for the office-based employees which make mutual
communication within the company friendlier. It is written in their annual
report that all their office-based equals and labours in delivery centres, call
centres and public stores and around their group obtain several training
programs and workshops related to different issues which may include
competition law, commercial income, anti-bribery, code of privacy and practice
and so on. These training programs also depend on their job posting in the
company. (TESCO PLC, 2016)There are several benefits of training and development which may include
flexibility in duty performance, Improvement in overall work performance,
Employee satisfaction and a decrease in supervision over the workers. Training
has a great impact on the overall work performed and includes other changes too
e.g. attainment of fresh skills (Satterfield & Hughes 2007). Most of these
programs include cross culture training which may help the employees work in
various cultures with no difficulty ((Bhawuk & Brislin 2000) resulting in
wider business.             Another great benefit is that companies who practice
Training and workshops for employees remain in continuous improvement. Advancement
and progress is the main factor of Continuous improvement and in order to
perform it must be understood profoundly. In this process, flaws are realized,
and measures are taken to reduce them. A system tries various strategies and
shifts from the failing one quickly and progresses to new ones to achieve the
better outcome. (Best & Dunlap, 2014). Training and development interventions
in organizations hold a great place in the corporate world and play a pivotal
role in the achievement of an organization. Organizational development helps
increase the profit and reduce the costs by reducing employee turnover and
defection. A satisfied employee is a very important and organizational
development has a huge impact on employee satisfaction. On the other hand,
continuous improvement helps the organization achieve a stable and valuable
place in the competitive market.As mentioned above that the times are changing and with evolving
work nature the Human resources department needs to evolve and play exceeding
roles. The pressure on organizations in today’s world is incredible. As
mentioned before, the use of technology, demographics, and organizational
changes, workforce, globalization, the HR needs to expand its role and adopt
new strategies. There are several roles that HR plays. The personnel from HR
helps design the company’s strategy from the social and human perspective
keeping the social needs in mind. The company’s reputation outside of the
office premises matters to the people and HR helps design the strategy that
will be environment-friendly. HR also keeps the compensation structures of a
company in check. There are lots of companies’ that are in competition with another,
HR plays the key role in keeping the company in the front row of the market by
conducting salary and other surveys. HR undoubtedly is very important in the
effective implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility as training and
development programs are also coordinated by the HR training and development
specialists. In addition to this, it is also the role of HR to keep the
employees satisfied and evaluate the high performance. They conduct employee
surveys to make sure that the employees are satisfied with the organization.
Among other tasks, HR plays a key role in scheduling interviews and screening
resumes.

But,
as times are changing it is becoming challenging to HR to deal the new issues
with same strategies. The CSR is expanding across borders; therefore, the
strategies need to be wide in order to deal with matters proficiently.
Strategies should be detailed enough to deal with different departments
effectively. HR should also make sure that the employees are aware of the
culture and policies of the company. They should make sure that the company is
connected to their employees in order to implement continuous improvement. For
example, Walmart has provided a helpline for the workers in more than 800
factories through which workers can report their concerns related to their job
(Walmart, 2017). Similarly, with the increase in responsibility and changing
work nature, HR should take steps to modify their strategy.

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