This study attempts to examine the effect of OCB
on various variables and at the end of the research, many interesting insights
are revealed. As evident from the results above, both organizational citizenship behavior and job
satisfaction are multi-faceted or multi-dimensional concepts and it is quite
probable that an employee tends to be satisfied with one facet of job
satisfaction and may not be satisfied with another and vice versa. Same holds
true for OCB, which implies that an individual may exhibit one of the organizational
citizenship behaviors such as altruism and civic virtue and may/ may not
display other dimensions i.e. conscientiousness and vice versa. As illustrated
by the results explained in preceding paragraphs, it can be inferred that the
more the employees are satisfied, the more they display, exhibit or perform organizational
citizenship behaviors which brings us to the conclusion that OCB has an important link with Job
Satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees. Among the antecedents
or determinants of OCB are employee-friendly organizational policies, HR practices,
strategy alignment, trust in senior leadership, fair reward and recognition
system, relations with coworkers or team members etc. to name a few, which
tend to trigger the inner drive of employees and encourage the individuals to
display or perform extra-role behaviors/activities voluntarily.
The current study, therefore, provides
several implications for managers of the telecom industry. Specifically, the
study results reveal that organizational citizenship behavior is positively
related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees. The
practitioners or the telecom industry managers need to satisfy their employees
by providing on-time pay, flexible working hours, and clear career
opportunities to foster citizenship behavior in the organization and to reduce
the propensity toward quitting. In addition, keeping in view the positive
relationship of organizational citizenship behavior with organizational commitment,
managers need to administer a fair reward system and train their staff to
ensure that they are committed (Uludag & Menevis, 2005) to the organization. This will promote and
support citizenship behavior and lessen the intentions to leave the job. It is
believed that providing adequate training opportunities to the workforce in the
philosophy of the organization could promote the exhibition of organizational
citizenship behavior and encourage the employees to value the organization as a
whole. In return, this approach could mitigate the employees’ intentions to
turnover. Furthermore, when employees feel the sense of belonging and loyalty
to the organization, the chances that they will leave the organization will be
reduced. Therefore, managers should focus on retaining productive employees
(cf. Yavas, Karatepe, & Babakus, 2011) to reduce the high cost of employee turnover (Alexandrov, Babakus, & Yavas, 2007).
Finally, the findings also support previous
work of Cropanzano and Byrne (2000) and a recent study of Du Plooy and Roodt
(2010). The findings of the current study confirm and add to the existing
knowledge base by providing evidence of confirming hypothesized relationships
among study constructs. Among others, satisfying employees by using
motivational techniques, providing flexible times, and fostering work-family
programs may help employees be committed to the organization. These resources
may also positively influence employees to actively engage in
discretionary/extra-role behaviors that will definitely pave the way for smooth
functioning of the businesses or organizations (cf. Robbins, 2001). Furthermore,
the employees who are satisfied, committed, and show extra-role performance
(organizational citizenship behavior) are likely to stay in their current organizations
which will ultimately be translated into enhanced organizational performance
Organizations and leaders should emphasize
to cultivate a culture of physical and emotional well-being of employees to
stimulate the exhibition of such voluntary or discretionary behaviors due to
the reason that OCB has been widely accepted as an indispensible and inevitable
condition for enhanced overall organizational performance, effectiveness and
growth (Barnard, 1938; Katz and Kahn, 1978; Organ, 1990). Moreover it is
pertinent to mention the benefits of OCB for both the employees and employer like
increased job satisfaction of employees, high retention of talented employees
etc. which can ultimately be translated into efficiency and effectiveness of
the organization. However, aligned with this, simultaneously the darker side of
OCB such as role overload, work-family conflict should also be taken into
account which may somehow prove to be detrimental/ counter-productive for the
health of organization. Foregoing above, apart from some positive consequences
and aspects favorable for the efficient and effective functioning of the
organization, practitioners and researchers should also put more emphasis on
the negative aspects of OCB. Moreover, the antecedents of OCB such as HR
practices, employee friendly policies and employee engagement initiatives can
be used as strategies to promote/ encourage the performance or exhibition of OCB
among employees in organizations.
Limitations may exist in almost every kind of
research; the current study may also include certain limitations which are as
Selection of respondents/company representatives
serving in certain telecom companies might be taken as a limitation as it is
restricted to some cities of Pakistan and is not able to cover every nook and
Furthermore, the responses may be based on the
biased opinion of respondents.
quite possible that some of the employees/ respondents may have responded to
the questions improperly due to time constraints or maybe they did not understand
the question properly.
Finally, other factors contributing to Organization
Citizenship Behavior can also be incorporated to better understand the
relationship between each dimension of OCB and facets of job satisfaction,
organizational commitment etc.
and Future Research
Although acceptable, the sample size of this
particular study is relatively low, so the data should be obtained from larger
samples in future investigations. A larger sample might provide more
informative or insightful results and consequently lend more power to the
Another avenue of research or further studies
might also take into account the relationship between OCB motives and the level
of threat felt by the coworkers when they observe any fellow employee
performing Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Broadly speaking, employees
might feel more threatened when a fellow coworker actively exhibits Organizational
Citizenship Behavior due to impression management because there is a
possibility that it poses threat to the coworkers because they feel that their
jobs/ career or future promotions are in jeopardy (Farrell & Finkelstein,
2011). Now, this argument necessitates the need for further research in order
to determine a means of analyzing the Organizational Citizenship Behavior
motives and then also assessing the coworkers’ reactions. In addition, it might
be interesting to examine whether the coworkers were more or less likely to
exhibit Organizational Citizenship Behavior after observing the coworker
engaging in Organizational Citizenship Behavior and also identifying the very
motive behind the actions.
While the past researches on Organizational
Citizenship Behavior highlight that there is little information available
pertaining to Organizational Citizenship Behavior in different cultures. So a
future research opportunity might also include investigating whether there are
differences in reactions to using Organizational Citizenship Behavior in
Employees’ performance evaluations in individualistic and collectivist cultures
(Johnson, Holladay, & Quinones, 2009). Because, by and large, the
individualistic cultures place oneself as most important whereas, contrary to
that, the collectivist cultures place the organization as most important. So
this leads us to the idea that those who place the organization as the most
important priority should value Organizational Citizenship Behavior more.
Nonetheless, the research on the antecedents/
determinants and consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behavior is really
important because those employees who actively display Organizational
Citizenship Behavior are viewed as an important asset for the organization, by
the managers and leaders alike. This will further facilitate the understanding of employees’
extra-role behaviour in organizational analysis. Hence,
as reported by (Borman, 2004) owing to its growing importance for the maximized
growth and performance of organizations, the research on Organizational
Citizenship Behavior will continue for many years.
Which of the following categories best describe
your employment status
Employed, Working full-time
Employed, working part-time
How long have you been working with your present
What is your current Designation/Grade?
indicate the extent to which you agree with the under mentioned statements.
5- Strongly Agree, 4-Agree, 3-Neutral, 2-Disagree, 1-Strongly Disagree
· I help others who have heavy workloads.
· I am always ready to lend a helping hand to
those around me.
· I help orient new people even though it is
· I willingly help others who have work related
· I rarely take long lunches or breaks.
· I do not take unnecessary time off work.
· I do not take extra breaks
· My attendance at work is above the norm
· I obey company rules and regulations even no
one is watching
· I attend trainings/information sessions that
are not required, but help the company image.
· I keep abreast of changes in the
· I read and keep up with organization
announcements, memos, and so on.
· I take the initiative to recommend how
procedures can be improved
· I encourage peers to follow organizational
· My manager gives us recognition for a job
· I am satisfied with the organization policies
· My organization has a fair promotion policy
· My organization provides me with sufficient
career development opportunities
· My work gives me sense of accomplishment
feel my pay is fair compared to people in similar roles in other organizations.
people I work with are supportive and treat me with respect.
coworkers and I openly talk about what needs to be done to be more effective.
feel proud to tell people where I work.
· I really feel as if this organization’s
problems are my own
organization motivates me to go above and beyond in my role.
would recommend this organization to others as a great place to work.
· I feel strong sense of attachment with my
5- Strongly Agree, 4-Agree, 3-Neutral, 2-Disagree, 1-Strongly Disagree