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This section intends to examine studies
done with respect to role of HR in sustainable business enterprise in general
context as well as specific to the mother diary in Indian context.
Sustainability has been defined as the ability “to meet the needs of present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs”1.

Sustainable development involves devising
a social and economic system, which ensures that these goals are sustained,
i.e., that real income rise, that educational standards increase, that the
health of the nation improves, that the general quality of life is advanced
(Pearce, Makandia & Barbier, 1989). 2.World Business Council for
Sustainable Development (2005) commented although the term “Sustainability”
means different things to different people, in essence it is concerned with
“meeting the needs of people today without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs” 3. Symposium on Sustainability (2001) argues from a
business perspective, sustainability has been defined as a “company’s ability
to achieve its business goals and increase long term shareholder value by
integrating economic, environmental and social opportunities into its business
strategies” 4. Aggerholm, H.K. et al (2011) analysed that corporations engage
in continuous dialogues with their employees and co-create organizational
brands. The aforementioned process brings several advantages. It develops a
long lasting employee-employer relationship, creates a strong employer brand,
foster sustainable organizational development and supports corporate branding
for external shareholders 5. Pfeffer, J. (2010) Environmental Sustainability
is often emphasized over Social Sustainability. Pfeffer’s article calls
attention to this neglected aspect of sustainable Human Resource Management
(HRM) and argues that job design, working hours, layoff policies and health
insurance coverage all affect employee well being 6. Savitz, A.W. et al
(2006) commented HR can help innovative sustainability initiatives in four
general areas: culture change, corporate strategy, organization effectiveness
and human capital development. In turn, sustainability holds a sweet spot of
its own for HR- opening boardroom doors. The researchers will analyse the
literature to build a theoretical framework on the definition and concept of
sustainability. Sustainability is not restricted to an environmental dimension.
It involves the convergence of economic development, social equity and
environmental protection to ensure long-term improvement of the society and
organizations. The concept of having a concern for Social, Economical and
Environmental aspect while doing business is referred as Triple Bottom Line
concept which is popularly termed as the 3 P’s: People, Planet, and Profits (Bolch,2008
and Laff, Feb. 2009). 7.’Sustainable livelihood framework’ which has focus on
four capital assets – financial, human, social and physical (Ashley and Carney,
1999). 8

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resource management is a distinctive approach to employment management which
seeks to achieve competitive advantage through strategy deployment of a highly
committed and capable workforce using an integrated array of cultural,
structural and personal techniques (Senyucel, 2009) 9. HRM is a strategic
approach to managing employment relations which emphasizes that leveraging
people’s capabilities is critical to achieving competitive advantage, this
being achieved through a distinctive set of integrated employment policies,
programs and practices (Bratton and Gold, 2007).10 Human Resource Management
(HRM) is a system, a philosophy, policy and practices that can influence
individuals who work for the organization (Daud, 2006).11


HRM aims at managing the internal work-relationships
in a way that makes sure they are productive and meet individual as well as
societal demands and expectations (Arnold, 2005).12 The purpose of HRM is to
ensure that the employees of an organization are used in such a way that the
employer obtains the greatest possible benefits from their abilities and the
employees obtain both material and psychology rewards from their work (Graham,

in HRM is defined as “those long-term leaning concrete approaches and actions
aimed at a collectively conscientious and cost-effectively appropriate
recruitment and selection, development, operation, and release of employees.”
(Thom and Zaugg, 2004).14 The role of HRM in developing sustainable business
organization is increasingly attracting attention. Sustainability can be used
as a principle for HRM itself and the task of sustainable HRM are twofold. On
the one hand it fosters the conditions for individual sustainability and
develops the ability of HRM system to continuously attract, regenerate and
develop motivated and engaged employees by making the HRM system itself
sustainable. On the other hand sustainable HRM contributes to the
sustainability of the business organizations through cooperation with the top
management, key stack holders and NGOs and by realizing economic, ecological,
social and human sustainability goals.

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