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Rock Street, San Francisco

This theory was
presented by Hotelling (Hotelling, 1929), and focuses on the importance of a store’s proximity to its main
rivals and argues that distance from rivals is more important than distance
from customers. in 1958, based on Hotelling’s theory, Nelson suggested that
while suppliers of a given product or service are located near one another,
demand rises (Litz, 2014). Later, this theory was considered as the basis for multiple other
approaches such as space syntax analysis (Hillier & Hanson, 1984), natural movement (Hillier, Perm, Hanson, Grajewski, & Xu, 1993) and the multiple centrality assessment (Porta et al., 2009). Space syntax techniques which were originally aimed at studying the
morphological logic of urban grids, are referred to as the application of a set
of configurational analysis techniques that assess the structure of the urban
grid (Hillier & Hanson, 1984). Such techniques also focus on the centrality measures which are
derived from the street network and its association with economic variables (Fahui Wang et al., 2014). In contrast to the attraction theory which implies that design should
be mostly based on the attraction degree of a place which is determined by the
level of movement to and from that place, natural movement theory emphasizes
the importance of spatial configuration. Configuration is the way that the
spatial elements which people move through are linked together to form a
pattern (Hillier et al., 1993). Natural movement theory indicates that configuration can have effects on movement
which are independent of attractors and can be considered as the primary
generator of movement. Natural movement in a grid is the proportion of urban
pedestrian movement determined by the grid
configuration itself which is the most pervasive and consistent component of
movement (Hillier et al., 1993). The multiple centrality assessment (MCA) approach defines being
central as being close, intermediary, straight and critical to other places
located in the area (Fahui Wang et al., 2014). Porta and colleagues (Porta et al., 2009), confirm the hypothesis that street centrality plays a crucial role in shaping the
formation of urban structure and land uses. They use a kernel density
estimation (KDE) to prepare data for the assessment of the correlation that
exists between being popular and the distribution of commercial and service
activities in the area of a given place. They define centrality with variables
such as closeness, between-ness and straightness. Most recently, Wang et al (Fahui Wang et al., 2014) examined the role street centrality plays in the popularity of
different types of retail stores. They also used a KDE estimation for data
preparation and assessed the correlation among centrality and location
advantage with the use of street centrality indices mentioned before. 

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