Thispart of the research deals with the description of research design, theparticipants of the study, the instrument used for collecting data, theprocedures of data collection and the methods of data analysis. Research Design This study is designed with a qualitativeresearch design. The main goal was to find challenges in the classroom and thestrategies of teachers utilize to overcome those tests that theyencountered.
This research method canprovide responses in the questions who, what, when, where and how-related to acertain study problem. There are several ways to carry out qualitativeresearch: grounded theory, case studies, ethnographic and phenomenologyresearch, but the most appropriate method for this study was phenomenologicalstudy to find out the challenges encounters by teachers when teaching childrenin diverse levels and how they cope up to overcome them. Sampling Designand sample size In this study, the researcher chosepurposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique in which researcherdepends on his/ her personal judgment when selecting members of population topartake in the study.
The goal of purposive sampling was to get informationfrom selected participants. The informants were selected for a reason obtainedto the purposes of the subject. Participants Theparticipants of this study were teachers. There are 15 participants taken as asample and they were all teaching at Cauayan North Central School. There are 14femalesand 1 male. The age of the participants ranges from 22 to 47 years. The lengthof teaching ranges from 1 year to 29 years. Most of them are teaching all thesubjects.
There are eight (8) teachers III, three (3) teachers II, three (3)volunteer teachers and one (1) a master teacher 1. The researchers chose theseparticipants because of getting experience based reflections on the challengesand strategies in classroom management from these participants’ perspectivewhich make this study significant and as well as relevant in its data findingand answering the research question setby the researchers. Research InstrumentIngathering data for the study, the researchers used the guide questions forinterview as the main instrument.Toallow the collection of detailed information from the teachers about thechallenges and strategies of teachers in classroom management, interview methodwas seen suitable because it allows the participants to speak out theiropinions, practices, feelings, insight, and experiences about their challengesand strategies in classroom management through the use of probing questions. With interview method, it was possible toasked follow-up question in order to increase richer information to theparticipants.
Also, the participants were available to clarify unclearstatements and immediate concerns (Gall & Borg 2007). Thereforeinteractions were made possible to build relationship and trust to theparticipants.Theinterview guide question contains two parts: first is the personal informationof the participants and the second part is the challenges and strategies ofteachers in classroom management.Theinstrument that the researchers used in conducting this study was adopted fromthe previous researchers, and approved by experts. This study created intoaccount on all matters related to validity. During the groundwork of theinterview guide, which was operated in the study, the questions were examinedand discussed. It has been formulated and developed.
After the formulation ofthe instruments, it has been checked by our adviser, Ms. Arriane Kris E.Maramag- Manalastas. After some recommendations and suggestions wereincorporated, the researchers prepared the instrument, conducted, retrieved andanalysed the data gathered.Data Collection Following the interview process, theresearcher wrote a permission letter for the participants and then orientedthem about the interview to be conducted. The participants set the time andalso the place to gather information about the challenges and strategies inclassroom management.
The researcheragreed with the suggestion of the participants regarding the time and placewhere the interview was to be conducted. In conducting the interview with theparticipants, the researcher asked questions and transcribed the answers of theparticipants. Audiotapes were also used to gather data. The ideal of transcribing the interviews isto gather information which is thematic. After the interview, the researcherbegan to read and hear the gathered data repeatedly to point out the ideasabout challenges and strategies in classroom management from the participants’answers. Using pen and paper, the researcher wrote down all the informationthat has similar ideas.Data Analysis Inobtaining the useful information, the researcher used data analysis.
Dataanalysis is the procedure of systematizing the data collected for example intocategories (Kothari, 2008). The researchers performed initial data analysisafter every interview to assess if there was information essential for thestudy that was missing. After the process of data collection the researcherstranscribed the raw data. Transcription is the process of converting audiorecording and interview notes into texts (Johnson and Christiansen 2012).
Afterthat, the researchers used thematic analysis to arrange the transcribed data.Thematic analysis and arrangement is the process that classifies, analyses, andreports the existence of themes in data collected from the investigation area. Theresearchers constantly compared segments of data between each other of theinterview transcripts, which helped to identify similar and different points ofview on a particular category and generate further concepts and subcategories.The researchers used different markers to highlight segments of the text thatdealt with specific issues that were relevant to the research study. The methodhelps in categorizing themes and their subcategories.