This essay is on informationabout cervical cancer. The impact it has on lives and the steps that has beendone throughout the years to reduce this health issue. Since this health-relatedtopic affects women a lot all worldwide, there should be an investment done bythe public health to tackle the risks implicated by cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is a cancerthat only develops in women. It develops in the cervix, it is also known as theentrance to the womb. Cervical cancer is known to have no symptoms in its earlystages. If there are any symptoms to occur they will be bleeding in betweenperiods, after sex, or after women menopause. Sometimes it may show symptomsthrough vaginal discharges and the discharge may contain an unusual nonepleasant odour.
When the cervical cancer advances it usually spreads to thesurrounding tissues and organs, that triggers more symptoms which are severecompared to the early stages. These symptoms include swelling of kidneyscausing serious back pain, weight and appetite loss, uncontrolled bladder, painin the bones and feeling week all the time (NHS Choices, 2015).Cervical cancer affects womenof different age groups, but it is more common in women of ages 30 to 45 and itis also rare to develop in women under the age of 25. Cervical cancer is causedby the human papillomavirus (HPV) and it is a sexual transmitted infection.That is why the government in the UK is providing vaccination to young girls atearly age, before sexual activities to decrease the potential exposure of HPVvirus. Even though sexual activities are normal, wearing condoms is advisableto protect both partners from HPV.
In 2014 cervical cancerresearch new cases has been found to be about 3,200 in the UK and roughly about9 cases diagnosed every day. Cervical cancer is known to be in the top 20 ofthe common cancers in the UK 2014. 2012 to 2014 cases show that 52% of cervicalcancer cases in the UK for each year, females under the age of 45 are beingdiagnosed. It is estimated that there could be an increase of 43% in cervicalcancer rates in the UK between 2014 to 2035. However, per 100,000 females theregoing to 17 cases by 2035 (Cancer Research UK, no date).
Cervical cancer ispredominantly found in white females than in the minority, whereas to Asianfemales and black females are less likely common.The number of deaths rates forcervical cancer in the UK was around 890 in 2014, more than 2 deaths per day.Cervical cancer is classified as the seventeenth most common death caused bycancer in women and 47% of the cervical cancer deaths are in the females aged65 and over in the UK 2012 to 2014. Whereas to mortality rates for 85 to 89ages rates are high. Studies has shown that mortality rates have decreased by23% in the past 10 years. The rates are expected to fall by 7% between 2014 to2035.
In England cervical cancer deaths are more common in females fromdisadvantaged areas. In the European countries, UK’s mortality rate has beenfound to be the lowest at ninth place and about 24,000 women were estimated tohave died from cervical cancer in 2012. Worldwide research, there is anestimation of more than 265,000 of women who lost their lives to cervicalcancer in 2012. The UK National ScreeningCommittee, after a successful pilot programme. A recommendation was made aboutsamples for screening, it is said the samples are to be tested for humanpapilloma virus (HPV) first. The cervical screening process has been changed tobenefit women in getting more accurate tests. These tests are to be done allover England as the main cervical disease screening test. The current processused to get sample is the cytology test, they use this process to examineabnormal cells in which sometimes.
This method can sometimes miss the abnormalcells due to them duplicating the normal cells. Which can lead to people beingmisdiagnosed resulting to normal cells appearing as abnormal cells. The new testing focus on testsfor HPV first, that way if HPV is detected it will be useful to determinewhether abnormal cells are developing since 99.7% of cervical cancers arecaused by the HPV infection. The process also prevents overtreatment andpreventing anxiety in women. Research shows that cervical cancer screeningsaves about 4,500 lives each year.
This was set in the cancer strategy forEngland 2015, improvement to the cervical screening programme (GOV.UK, 2016). Almost 63% of women in England and Walesdiagnosed with cervical cancer survives the diseases for over 10 years 2010 to2011. Around 67% of women with cervical cancer can survive five years or more.The highest survival rate was for women under 40 years old 2009 to 2013.Cervical screening is one ofthe methods of cervical cancer prevention.
It helps with detection of cancerousabnormal cells. As the cancer strategy 2015 plan to improve on the screening.The UK national Screening committee they have already had a break through withthe new testing method for cervical cancer. They made it easier to detect ifthere’s any cancer cells in the Cervix by running tests which only tests thatdetects if the HPV is present in the cells.
This screening is even proven to save morelives, since in England the NHS has started using this test as the primarycervical screening. In 2016 the UK Screening Committee made a recommendation toroll out the test all over the country, but no plans were made to offer thisscreening in Northen Ireland and Scotland, although England and Wales arecommitted to this (Cancer Research UK, 2016).This new break through done bythe UK National Committee success on the new screening test for HPV detectionshould be made available worldwide. As stated in the Cancer Research that therewere no plans made to offer the new screening test in Northen Ireland andScotland. This should be made accessible in all countries to reduce the numberoff overtreatments. They are also a lot cervical cancer awareness campaigns inthe UK, they need to brunch out to other developing countries with some peoplewho have no knowledge in the subject.There have been studies donein South-East Nigeria among urban residential women on effects of peer healtheducation on perception and cervical cancer screening practice. In sub-SaharanAfrica cervical cancer is evidently known to be common among women.
It iscurrently ranked top 2 common cancer that is common in women in Nigeria. Around14,550 of women in Nigeria are being diagnosed with cervical cancer, and around9659 dies from the disease every year. There is an estimation of 22,914 womento develop cancer per year, whereas to 16,261 will die by 2025 (BMC Women’sHealth, 2017).
Effective female education oncervical cancer screening, compared to other strategies has been recognised asa method of raising awareness of cervical cancer screening services. The studywas done to review whether peer health education would have an impact onwomen’s cervical cancer and screening perception. The study was done in thecommunity-based intervention.As evidenced from the studyresearch in South-East Nigeria, some women from the world developing countriesunaware about the cervical cancer and screening due to less education on theissue and information. Lack of expertise to educate women on importance ofcervical screening has been a barrier. It will be in the best interest forwomen who are not fully aware to get full support from health professionals whohave knowledge with the subject. The World Health Organisation must play a partin recruiting some knowledgeable health professional on the issues to areaswhich is really in need of peer health education. There are also issues of thenon-availability of the screening services.
It is also shown that most womenare more familiar with pap test and it is probably because it is the mostavailable and affordable method.As cervical cancer is commonin women, it also has treatment options. Some of the treatment cause harm tothe reproductive organs, after some medical procedures it is impossible for awoman to get pregnant e.g. in a hysterectomy removal of the uterus, and resultsafter radiotherapy the ovaries stops working, causing infertility. These aresome of the barriers associated with cervical cancer treatment. There should bemore research done by the specialists to improve on the treatment and reducethe rate of infertility caused by cervical cancer, it will also reduce therisks of women who suffer from depression.
Also offering free counselling towomen before and after their treatment is necessary.Referring to the informationdiscussed above with researches and studies done in different countries orareas. Cervical cancer is one of the top 20 common cancers that needs money tospend on. Mostly because it is a cancer that affects women’s health and thecervix. The current treatment offered for these diseases also harm and causewomen to be infertile.
There need to be more campaigns funded to raise awarenessof the cancer worldwide to encourage women of the ages 25 to 64 to be awarealso of the services provided to tackle the issue. In having the cancerouscells earlier to prevent serious treatment that also leave pain in women’slives.The money should also be spenton recruiting volunteers who travels to different parts of the world to do moreresearch on progress over the years done for cervical cancer and screening.Some of the volunteers should be spent to educate women on how criticallyserious this disease is, as written in one of the journals it is found thatsome women do not take cervical cancer as an important issue. NationalInstitute for Health Research (2016) funded trial tests several approaches toincrease screening uptake in young women especially the ones having their firstscreening invitation.
In less developed countries orregions cervical cancer has been found to be the second common cancer in women.Through the researches done there has been high rates of deaths caused bycervical cancer of about 85% worldwide. The disease is less likely to bedetected in developing countries because of limited access to cervicalscreening.
Due to the limited access of the screening, it can be a disadvantageto any women who has abnormal cells which are undetected the disease candevelop, and it cannot be seen until there are signs and symptoms. In conclusion cervical cancer,can be prevented by screening since there have been break through to upgradethe screening tests over the years to be able to detect abnormal cells.However, there are risks that comes with treatments when one is diagnosed withcervical cancer which includes losing ovaries and which makes it more an issueto fund and get more research done since screening saves over 90% of women’slives.