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There had been several major changes in the health and
social care services in the United Kingdom since the early 19th century where
diseases and illness are dominant among the poor making it impossible for them to be gainful employment and the majority of them are in need of help from the

The Key milestone in the development of Health and Social
Care Services

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The 1848 cholera outbreak leads to the Public Health
Acts(1848) which in turns established a central board of Health and a framework for authorities.This
leads to the implementation of compulsory vaccination against smallpox in 1853,
improvement in the level of
hygiene in the hospital in 1854, the
Public Health Act 1875 implement a law on the clearance of slums, provision of
clean water.

The law to help the situation of the poor individual was also put in place by the government by the
introduction of free school meals for the poor children. In 1906, school medical examination started and the
free medical treatment for the sick workers were introduced in 1911.Throughout
the 19th century there were noticeable advancement in the scientific and
medical research in the country and some of the discoveries made were needed in
the diagnoses and treatment of some diseases such as  the discoveries of x-ray in 1895 by Wilhelm
Roentgen a German scientist, the discoveries of the first hormone secretin in
1902 by William Bayliss and Ernest Starling and many more important scientific
and medical discoveries.

The establishment of NHS signifies
the start of a major development in the Health and Social care sector in the United Kingdom. The major priorities of NHS are to encourage and inform the public on how
to improve healthcare, in order for everyone to have a control over their own
health and wellbeing and to make everyone have access to quality healthcare services. The NHS has brought about
a lot of improvement in the quality of care services given to the nation for
example, in 1948 tuberculosis was a major cause of death in England and Wales
but now the chance of dying from tuberculosis has been reduced to 70 times than
it was in 1948.In all, life expectancy today is higher than the earlier part of the 20th century due to improvement and advancement in Healthcare services.

The development of health and social care services started
with the industrialization which created an unhealthy
working condition for the urban poor leading to the shortage of health workers due to diseases and illness.
This lead to the social reform act, health
care provision and education in the late 19th and early 20th century.  Sir William Beveridge who was an experienced
social worker and educator in his report called “SOCIAL INSURANCE AND
ALLIED SERVICES”( the Beveridge Report) called for a complete health care programme that includes
education, employment, housing and social
security. The major point in the report is the establishment of the National
Health Services with free medical services for all and the introduction of the
national benefits system.

The main changes in the health and social care are the
Health and social care Act 2012 which set out a clear duty for the health
system and its relationship with care and
support services. It makes the NHS England,
the clinical commissioning groups, and
Health, Monitor and Wellbeing Boards to
work together for better provision of health and social care in England. The
care Act(2014) gives the local authority the power to promote integrated
services and in addition to the legislative changes, the Government gave
2.7billion funding to local council, extra 100milliin in 2013 to 2014, another
200million in 2014 to 2015 all in a bid to assist the local councils and healthcare establishment to provide a successful integrated care, improving
healthcare and reducing health inequalities.

This changes also make people have a say on the type of
services that are right for them. People with needs
can be allocated a named professional who will be in charge of their case. Also, the changes include improving support for people when moving from one care
services to the other like moving from hospital to homes.


Some social factors like education, work environment income,
living and working condition, unemployment, water,
and sanitation all have an impact to play
in health and social care of any individual. People with little or no education
tends to be in an unskilled labor,
exposed to health hazard also their
income will be low, thereby residing in a poor housing condition with poor sanitation which
in turn will have a negative implication on their health thereby putting
pressure on the health care services. People in this situation according to
research are prone to be stressed with
high blood pressure and as result have a less
social life.



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