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There
are many physical and chemical methods to treat air pollution. Bioprocesses
have been very efficient for the treatment of air pollution. The most popular
bioreactor configuration is the conventional biofilter. Biofilters were
initially designed for odour control at wastewater treatment plants, but now
they are becoming renowned for the treatment of volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) and other organic compounds. These gases have bad odour and are
dangerous for humans and animals.

 

Biofiltration
process is preferred over other air pollution control techniques and has gained
popularity because it has economic advantages,
as the energy requirement is significantly low and avoids cross media transfer
of pollutants. This technology can be mainly applied to waste gases to control
air pollution, which have low concentration and readily biodegradable
pollutants. Biofilters utilizes microorganisms to reduce air pollution. Air
pollutants come in contact with microorganisms inside the biofilter, where
microorganisms demean pollutants to produce energy and by-products (C02 and
H20).

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Biofilter
includes a filter material, where microorganisms breed. Biofilm is a very
important part of the biofilter. Biofilm is a thin layer of moisture where the
microorganisms reside.

In
the process of biofilteration polluted air is pushed inside the biofilter
slowly thereby, the pollutants in the air get absorbed in the filter media,
then as a result the polluted gas is dispersed in the biofliter and absorbed
onto the biofilm. After the escalation of the conventional biofilter, a new
composition was developed for air pollution control which is known as
bootlicking filter. The new set of technologies were also introduced for air
pollution control such as membrane bioreactor and rotating biological
contractor.

A
lot of industries use this new technology for example the food industry,
pharmaceuticals, wood products manufacturing, paint and coatings application
etc.

Polluted
air stream comprises VOCs and many sulfur compounds. Biofilters require a large
while treating large airflows, which is as big as a basketball court.

Recent
research shows that biofilters can be used to remove a variety of airborne
contaminants which includes aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols,
aldehydes, organic acids, acrylate, carbolic acids, amines and ammonia.

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