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There are both long term and short term effects of consuming crack cocaine. To begin with, Crack cocaine immediately increases of causing a heart attack, stroke or seizure to the person who is consuming the drug, regardless of how much of the drug is taken. This can lead to the likeliness of unexpected and sudden death. Their heart rate would be considerably increased, compared to before they started taking the drug. Effects of crack cocaine may also consist of convulsions and occasional muscle spasms. As well as these effects, most commonly crack users will experience severe problems with their respiratory systems, leading them to having coughing fits often, a shortness of breath and damage to their lungs, heart liver and kidneys. Those who use crack are less likely to be protected from infectious diseases as their immune systems will become weaker, Other side effects of the drug which can also turn into long term effects consist of the user possibly feeling irritable, anxious and aggressive. A headache and pain in the abdominal may also occur in some cases. The user would also have cracked and blistered lips, due to the hot pipe on their lips from smoking. Those who are regular users of crack will also often find that they are struggling with their sleep and. Consuming crack over a long period of time can also lead to hardened blood vessels due from being constricted from the stimulation from crack. This can lead to blood vessels becoming destroyed and in some cases, can even rupture. Ruptured blood vessels can then lead to strokes, (Narconon, 2017). Extent of useThe home office released statistics in June of 2016 for England and Wales. According to these statistics that were released, powder cocaine was revealed to be the second most commonly used drug, with the first being cannabis. It was revealed that in adults (16-59 years olds). 2.2% of the survey respondents reported using cocaine 2016, which equates to around 725,000 people. Similarly, powder cocaine is the third most commonly used drug among young adults aged 16 to 24 (4.4% or 274,000 young adults) after cannabis and ecstasy. This has been the case for the previous years also. In regards for the use of crack cocaine, the statistics happened to be much lower. 0.1% of those aged between 16-59 had used crack in the year of 2016. However, this is likely to be quite inaccurate. This would be due to the lifestyle of a crack users’ life, which would be chaotic and hectic. Drug surveys as such are likely to be underestimating how much crack is actually taken be people. WebMD did a survey which revealed that those who used crack cocaine the most heavily had actually turned out to be males who were between the ages of 18 and 25. With women, it was revealed that 1.1% off those who were pregnant and who were below the age of 44, had taken crack cocaine during their pregnancies. However, the national survey on drug use and health and revealed how an estimated 25million of men and both had admitted to using crack at least once in the past year, but they claimed how it was mainly for experimental reasons. May claimed that they never actually took the drug again. On the other hand, MedicineNet estimates that 5 percent of the people who take crack cocaine for the first time develop a dependence on the drug within two years of that first use, (Project know, 2017). Research has found that Crack is the most popular in the US as that’s where crack had basically started, during the crack epidemic. In the UK however, the number of people who use crack and are seeking help has increased by 23%. The National Drug Treatment Monitoring System figures reveal how 3,657 users had asked for help to stop in regards with smoking crack in 2016, compared with 2,980 in 2015. The number of people seeking for help had increased by 15%, (The guardian, 2017).Methods of useOnce crack has been processed from powder cocaine and broken into smaller sized chunks, it is generally weighed a few tenths of a gram. The typical method of consuming crack cocaine would be to smoke it using a glass hand pipe, (which can result in sore and blistered lips, as the glass is so hot). In some cases, users may choose to inject the drug into their veins or even snort it like they would with powder cocaine, however, these methods are less prevalent than smoking through a glass hand pipe, which is the most desired method. It has also been reported that some crack users combine crack cocaine with heroin and/or marijuana, in hopes of achieving more intense and different effects which are more effective. Since crack is generally being inhaled, it tends to quickly be absorbed through the lungs which go into the bloodstreams, reaching the brain in seconds. Smoking crack is the most effective method as its effects last the longer, as injecting or snorting give less longer lasting effects. Once crack gets into the brain of the user, it created short electrifying feelings of euphoria for the user. The fact that crack delivers instant results would be the reason many become addicted. This would be because the effects of smoking crack (the high) are very short lived. (Centre for substance abuse research, 2013).Harms of crackCrack cocaine has the reputation of being one of the most harmful and hostile illegitimate drugs available. It’s negative reputation stems from the harms which are associated with it and especially since users can become dependent on it simply from the first few uses. A major problem with crack is that as soon as it wears off, cravings for more kick in almost instantly.  Harms associated with crack range from effects on a users’ mentality and physical health. With regards to mental effects, crack users will often find themselves feeling confused as well as paranoid and sensitive. Whilst under the influence of crack, users will feel have a false sense of power and control, making them feel overconfident. Once the effects of the drug have worn off, the person could then go into a depression and isolate themselves, making it harder for themselves to be able to get help. When the high has worn off crack addicts are more likely to be prone to losing their concentration leading for them to duffer from severe mood swings. Experiencing hallucinations is also another mental health harm associated with crack cocaine. heavy crack users are found to be quite forgetful and unable to do certain things or meet deadlines when they really need to. Their health issues associated with the consumption of the drug can also lead to them being unfit to work and unemployed, it is harder for them to respond to real life situations effectively and adequately which can then lead to homelessness. Their personal family lives can also be harmed as mentally crack users would not be in the right state of mind. They will mostly befriend other crack users who could influence them further to continue to take the drug.  Crack cocaine can physically cause some seriously severe harms to a person’s body. As crack is such a strong stimulant, it can cause and incredible amount of stress on a user’s heart, their vascular system, their respiratory system as well as their brain. The high a user may achieve from the consumption of crack is created by chemicals which are rooted deeply into the brain which controls many vital human behaviours. These would range from hunger, pleasure and sleep to the heart rate of the individual, (Luxury Rehab, 2017). Taking a large quantity of crack over a long period of time can therefore result in over-stimulation in a person’s body which will then eventually lead to a significant increase in the users’ body temperature. The extremely high body temperature can then lead to convulsions whish can result in death, (Narconon, 2017). Crack can also be the cause of sexual dysfunction in both men and women. Both sexes can become infertile crack as the reproductive system can be damaged by the drug. Central nervous system stimulants like crack cocaine can cause heart disease and heart attacks in otherwise healthy individuals due to increases in cholesterol levels and negative effects on the coronary arteries, (Luxury Rehab, 2017).careersPeople may start to take crack cocaine for a variety of different reasons, as they would with any drug. It could be due to curiosity of what it’s like and what the outcome must be, because they feel like it will help them, or they may even be pressured by others. Many people may intend to take drugs in the first place in hopes of it just being a temporary habit. It may be to relieve any pressure in their lives and/or as a mental escape from reality, (Narconon, 2017).Persistence in crack use is common. The temporary high that people achieve from smoking crack leaves them craving for more and more each time. To begin with, it creates a temporary high which is powerful and intense, which is then followed by an intense depression, a decreased appetite, and a strong craving for more doses of crack. This is how addiction to crack occurs, (Watson, 2017).Desistance from a crack addiction is a problem many users’ will face. Withdrawal symptoms from crack may include deficits which affect a users’ memory and attention even after four weeks of staying clean from the drug. A study found in the journal of substance abuse found how that although the memory of users was left effected, there were improvements of verbal fluency and spontaneous word generation after four weeks of abstinence were observed. Desistance from crack is most likely to be the result of the user having intentions on quitting as it can destroy a persons’ life, (Malta et al, 2017).

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