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There are six different types of challenge that may be facedby either the carers or the service users which need to be overcome in order tomeet the needs of the individual effectively. These challenges areAwareness and Knowledge – A service user may not be aware ofcertain treatments and services out there for them to access so it makes themmore worried about the care they will be receiving. Also, the carers may nothave up to date knowledge and information to offer the right course oftreatment.

If they are not aware of new guidance and information, they will notgive effective care and meet the patient’s needs. Practical – This is to do with the physical and material challengesthat someone may face, such as it is harder for the service user to access theservice because of geographical or physical difficulties. Also, a service mayface practical challenges as they may not have the right resources or servicesto be able to care for the patients such as funding or medication. Skills – These challenges are the abilities people lack inorder to receive effective care such as they may not have the skills to useover the phone appointments, so they have to wait for face to face appointmentswhich is much slower, or they may not be able to use the computer or theinternet which means they can’t research symptoms and treatments etc. This canalso include communication as they lack communication skills it will be harderto talk about the care and for them to understand and also voice their opinionson the care received. Acceptance and belief challenges – This is more of a mentalchallenge as if someone has a mental illness or a physical disability, they mustaccept that it’s going to be tough and they might have to accept that they needhelp, as to not feel they’ve lost their independence completely. Also, if thepatient has different beliefs such as religious or preferences because ofculture or personal opinion, the carer must be able to adapt to these beliefsand make the care suitable to their beliefs otherwise it can cause challengesand conflicts with discrimination.

Motivational challenges: Motivation is very important whenit comes to health and social care as being motivated to turn up toappointments or to attend classes and to keep taking treatments can be veryhard. Also, the service provider may face motivational challenges as they maywant to give up at times or may find it hard to keep up the morale of thepatient but it is their duty to motivate their patients so the must try toovercome it.Communication challenges: Communication is very important asit helps get views across quickly and maintains the trust between patient andcarer. However, some people may find it hard to communicate as they may have alearning disability or they may just not be able to understand the informationgiven. This puts a barrier between the carer and the patient and makes care alot harder. Some strategies to overcoming these challenges: -Educational information materials – These are ways ofgetting information across and educating someone about a particular illness ortreatment. These can take the forms of DVD’s, leaflets, flyers, web articlesand newspapers, TV advertisement etc.

Some examples of what it might help toeducate people on is smoking, alcohol consumption or even what funding they areentitled to on the NHS.  This will linkto the knowledge and awareness challenge as it makes people more aware andbroadens their knowledge on a topic. It also helps service providers as it is asource of information that they can use and keep referring back to over andover again.

Training courses – Courses are available to help people withskills they need to overcome the needs and to help with the care, such as thesecourses may help families of the patients as they can go on these courses togain wider knowledge on that particular illness or condition. Also, they couldgo on one so the can become better carers such as leaning how to administertreatments. They can also help the patients as if they were a stroke victim orhad a disability they would have to train their bodies to overcome the problemsor a learning disability they could train their brains through problem solvingtraining. Lastly, they could help the carers involved in the patients care asthey need to be trained on how to administer care effectively and it will widentheir knowledge on particular conditions further and linking to challenges, thecourses will help them find ways to overcome them. Opinion leaders – An opinion leader is a well-knownindividual or organisation which can influence people’s views and opinions. InHealth and Social Care this can be chief executive of organisations such as theNHS, like Jeremy Hunt as he decides what services provide what care and hecontrols the layout of the NKS services and their funds. Also it could just bea local GP as they have a big say in the care of that community and how thingsshould be run.

They could use their public influence to discuss the challengesof funding and resources or the ability of the service providers do what’s bestfor the patient. They could influence community campaigns against things suchas smoking to raise more awareness. Clinical audits – A clinical audit is a systematic review ofcare based on standards of the best practice of care and off specific criteriathat must be met.

From this results are outputted and if necessary changes areimplemented. Its main aim is to allow quality improvement to happen and show toservice providers and patients where improvements on care needs to happen18.These can be done in a Nationwide Clinical Audit or a Local Clinical Audit.They help manage challenges as they find support and guidance on were thingsneed to improve and they are doing the best for that service to keep it runningsmoothly. Computer-aided advice systems – These are online decisionsupport tools that help carers when they need advice on things such as whatmedication to give to a specific condition or helplines to other services. Itgives them extra support and guidance.

The prompts they get off these serviceshelp improve the care they give or to avoid certain challenges they remind thecarers to avoid certain actions that will lower the effectiveness of the care. Patient-mediated strategies – These provide informationthrough the use of mass media campaigns to service providers about evidencebased practice. This makes care better as through these campaigns the carers aremore able to influence the decisions they make as they have these campaigns tohelp them. Also the services are better prepared for changes as they arealready informed of them beforehand. So they are more equipped for changes.NusratPatel A challenge that Nusrat may face is a communicationchallenge as she has a learning disability so she may lack the skills to beable to communicate effectively. This may mean that she finds it hard to gether points across to the carers and this makes applying care harder as carersmust take into consideration the opinions of the patient and listen to theirneeds to do what’s best for them. Also, this challenge may be a problem as becauseof her disability she may struggle to process certain things or language thather carers use especially the words that her GP use as these will be medicalterminology such as names of medication.

This means there is a barrier and thisneeds to be overcome. A way of identifying this communication challenge couldbe just talking to Nusrat informally, so not using medical terms. This willdistinguish what language she seems to understand more and the way they shouldcommunicate with her. Nusrat does have an advocate which has settled thischallenge a little as she can get her opinions across by using them and feels moreconfident knowing she has someone there to help her improve these communicationskills and support her while also keeping her independence. A strategy that mayhelp to overcome this challenge is a training course as the advocate will needto go on a training course in order to improve their skills and their knowledgeon how to help Nusrat, this means they can meet her needs quicker and moreeffectively and also if new techniques come into place that may be better forNusrat to use they can learn about them. Training courses may also help Nusratas she could go on them in order to improve her own communication skills as itcan boost her confidence and also at these courses she can talk to others topractice and get a better understanding. Training courses are good for Nusratas they are not too much information to take in at once as they are focused onone particular problem that needs overcoming and it puts that skill into practice,so this strategy is good for Nusrat. Another challenge that Nusrat may face is an acceptance andbelief challenge as Nusrat may struggle to accept the fact that she needs helpfrom a volunteer to go to the toilet because of her epilepsy.

This may be achallenge for her because she feels that with this volunteer she may lose her independenceand dignity from it. The reason she may be struggling to accept the help fromthem as because Nusrat is only 19 she may be influenced by others opinions ofher and if they say negative things against the support of the volunteer,Nusrat may feel self-conscious and be unwilling to accept the help and therewill be a trust challenge as well because she may feel she can’t talk to thevolunteer without being judged by her peers. A way of identifying this challengemay be by observation as a carer could observe Nusrat’s behaviour around thevolunteer as she may be resistant to their help or may decide not to go to thetoilet to not have to have to be supported by them.   AliceFernandez A challenge that Alice may face may be a Motivationalchallenge as she suffers from depression after the death of her husband, thismeans she struggles to control her thoughts and emotions and she may lack themotivation to be able to get over this grief. Because of this lack of motivation,she has turned to drink and now faces the prospect of being an alcoholic aswell as this depression. Because she has other problems to face this alcoholismas become a challenge as she can’t find the motivation to be able to get overit as its helping her with her grief.

Also, the carers who look after Alice maybe faced with this same challenge as her because they may lack the motivationto get past the problem as whatever they do Alice might not listen to them andthis therefore will create a barrier between Alice and the carers as she won’tlisten to them and the care they give will not be effective. A way ofidentifying this challenge would be through observation as carers can monitorhow much she is drinking through her spending and through how many bottlesthere are at her home. They can also observe through her behaviour as if shehas had a lot to drink they will be able to tell or if she smells of alcoholthey can assume she’s drank a lot. A strategy to overcome this challenge wouldbe through education resources as they are useful in getting a message acrossto people about the dangers of things such as smoking and alcohol.

If thecarers give one of these to Alice about the dangers of alcohol and what it isdoing to her health, then she may realise that it is not the best way to getover her grief and it may motivate her to try and give it up with the help andsupport of the people around her. The centre where she attends could help asthey could set up a campaign or advertise posters so it is visible to Alicethat it is harming her more than helping her. This strategy is good as they arewidespread resources and accessible to anyone and they give relevantinformation out that gets straight to the point. However, a barrier to thisstrategy being good for Alice is that she will struggle to access the onlinematerials because she may not be able to access the materials online due to thelack of skills.Another challenge that Alice may face is                                                           

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