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The Perceptions of Employees towards women’s career
progression is a great determinant of the career progression of women in
organizations in general. The levels of chauvinism in the top management and
the belief that the top management holds in women will determine the career
progression of women in that organization. Suda (2012) in the study titled
gender disparities in the Kenyan labor market: implications for poverty
reduction, shows that gender participation in different sectors of the economy
revealed some important patterns and trends including the fact that female
labor force participation in the modern sector had remained below 30% over a
number of years compared to men who held a disproportionately larger share of
the modern sector jobs.

The majority of women were employed in the education and
informal sectors. Those who worked in the agricultural sector were usually
engaged as casuals. Suda (2012) adds that

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Kenya women’s overall lower level of education, limited
skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural
attitudes and segregation of the labor market were some of the factors
associated with their limited participation in the modern sector.


Policies and Practices Affecting Women’s Career Progression
have a huge impact on the career progression of women at the workplace
especially in the white collar jobs. To promote female career progression in
the country at large, several policies have been drafted. The Criminal Law Amendment
Act Published April 2010 and enacted removes the inconsistencies between
penalties for sexual offences against minors and women.

Women are also required to balance work and family
responsibility. Work–life balance is the maintenance of a balance between
responsibilities at work and at home. Work and family have increasingly become
antagonist sphere. The society places some responsibilities of the household on
women. These responsibilities may affect the performance of a female employee
at their work place. As such, work and family responsibility are so demanding
to the female employees who may reduce their productivity hence affects their
career progression.

Women are strongly committed to peace building, as they
often disproportionately suffer the consequences of armed conflict.
Reconstruction and reconciliation efforts take root more quickly and are more
sustainable when women are involved. By helping women become participating
members of a democracy, one can look to mitigate conflicts or stop conflicts
before they begin. Women are strongly linked to positive developments in
education, infrastructure and health standards.

Men in patriarchal societies such as ours doubt women
capabilities to make responsible and autonomous decisions and only believe that
women need help from their husbands, fathers, brothers or sons to assist them
with candid information to enable them lead. In addition, many men are reluctant
to share equal leadership positions or be equal partners with women in
business. There is even a reluctance to sell property to women hence reducing
the level of security for women. These among other attitudes, notions,
perceptions and cultures have hindered women to progress in their carriers.

Theoretical Framework:

 Rawls’ theory of justice:

Rawls’ theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of
two fundamental principles of justice, which would, in turn, guarantee a just
and morally acceptable society. The first principle guarantees the right of
each person to have the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the
liberties of others. The second principle states that social and economic
positions are to be to everyone’s advantage and open to all.

The two basic principles of justice states that: each person
should get an equal guarantee to as many different liberties and as much of
those liberties as can be guaranteed to everyone else at the same time.
Principle two states that, inequalities in society are okay only if they are
arranged so that the inequalities actually help out the least fortunate persons
in society. The inequalities are connected to positions or offices or jobs in
society that everyone has an equal opportunity to attain.

For instance, it was suggested that a Supreme Court of
Justice, in an opinion on sex discrimination, should say only that all people
are equal as citizens and not that men and women are equal by nature. In other
words, there should be no differences except those that can be justified on
grounds of efficiency. This theory is therefore applicable to this study in
that it advances that all people are equal as citizens and not that men and
women are equal by nature. There should be no differences in recruitment except
those that can be justified on grounds of competence.

This theory advances that inequalities in society are
acceptable only if they are arranged so that they actually help out the least
fortunate persons in society. Affirmative action is a practice that redresses
inequality in society and is therefore meant to promote justice.

Chapter Summary:

This chapter reviewed literature from other scholars and
researchers on the subject of factors affecting career progression in
organizations. It first reviewed the theories guiding the study where it looked
at the Rawls’ theory of justice and social cognitive theory. The study then
reviewed literature related to the key study objectives where it looked at what
other scholars have said.  On perceptions
of management towards women’s career progression, evidence shows that many
employers? have negative attitudes toward women in the professions and
employment in general (Dale et al., 2005). Employers often hold traditional
views about the suitability of men or women for certain jobs and are sometimes
unable or unwilling to consider flexible working and childcare issues. 

On policies and practices affecting women’s career
progression, the literature indicates that because men have traditionally held
positions of power, personnel policies and work structures tend to reflect the
life experience of men and are often in conflict with the life experience of

On impacts of balancing work and family responsibility on
women’s working lives, the literature indicated that work and family
responsibility may impact more on mental health on women as compared to men. There
are a number of times contradictory demands made by the worlds of work and family
life lead to dissatisfactions that have an impact on the various spheres of an

Individual’s life.  

The strain of balancing family life and professional life is
linked to mental health problems in parents/workers, but its impact goes beyond
these problems. It could also impact on dietary habits and lifestyle of
families. On Factors Affecting career development of women, the literature
identified Gender Inequality, Chauvinism and sexual harassment, Organizational
Structure, The Glass Ceiling Effect, Discrimination at work place, Cultural
Factors and Structural Factors as some of the key factors affecting career progression
of women at the work place.

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