The world is facing increasing demand for food with war, famine and natural disasters. Countries such as South Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and northeast Nigeria are at risk of famine. According to the global report on the food crisis, there were reports of 108 million people around the world with crisis-level food insecurity, it is showing an increasing trend with an increase of 80 million people from the previous year. There are a variety of reasons for the food crisis: conflict, natural weather phenomenon and price of food.Conflict is a leading cause of food insecurity. Conflicts undermine food security in many ways, they create access problems for both government and humanitarians agencies to get to the needy.
There is also disruption the food production cycle, farmers are not able to produce sufficient food crops and keep up their livestock. This will ultimately lead to loss of assets and income. There are other secondary implications of the shortage of such as malnutrition. This can directly impact on vulnerable groups such as children, elderly and pregnant women. There are inimical effects of conflict on food production and agriculture slows economic and market development.
About 3.3 million children and pregnant or breastfeeding women are extremely malnourished of which including 462,000 children under five in severe malnutrition.Natural disasters are a major cause of food insecurity, the vulnerable countries are those with limited facilities to deal with a disaster, with the large population and less shockproof. One area of natural phenomenon is El Nino. It is the biggest fluctuation of the earth climatic system leading to consequences in all parts of the world. El Nino will occur every few years. Ethiopia has faced the worst impact of El Nino with 9.7 million people needing food assistance due to the droughts.
There was drastic pressure on food available in countries such as Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zambia. The current conditions are the result of the cumulative impact of two consecutive years of drought, including El Niño-induced dry conditions in 2015/16 that resulted in below-average cereal production and livestock losses.Having high-cost food simply makes it hectic for the poor to survive. Although it is a great opportunity for farmers, it is the consumers who suffer.
For instance in southern Africa, the import costs have risen for low-income food deficit countries ( LIFDC) in 2016, Taking, for instance, a staple food of maize. The international price of maize, however, was considerably lower although many countries faced difficulties as there was an acute increase in prices. They were triggered by the sharp drop in cereal output and they related back to conflicts and climatic conditions.