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The processes by which
adults support children’s learning has distinguished the factors which make
some adults particularly effective in supporting and promoting children’s
learning in the Zone of Proximal Development. Adults encourage, instruct, ask
questions, simplify the task, remind children of the goal, make suggestions,
model to emphasise the key points, give feedback, and so on. These different
types of interplay integrate so that the skilful adult provides what has been
termed scaffolding. Crucially, however, the trademark of an excellent
scaffolder is the capacity to sensitively withdraw support as when the child
will be able to carry out the task more independently and to take over more of
the regulatory role.


knowledge of Vygotsky’s theory can constantly be characterised as a process of
internalisation, whereby the procedures for successful completion of a task are
initially modelled and articulated by an adult or more experienced peer, with
the child then gradually becoming able to talk themselves through the task
using self-commentary or private speech. Finally, the child can fully
self-regulate utilizing an internal speech or abstract thought. This model
would recommend that metacognitive and self-regulatory skills are learnt
through social interaction, which, whether it’s true, is an extremely exciting
prospect for early years educators. A currently far reaching
literature, concerned with developing and
evaluating educational interventions intended to promote metacognitive and
self-regulatory abilities in young children, has confirmed Vygotsky’s position
and shown that they are indeed highly teachable.

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