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The growing industrialization and urbanization involving transportation,
construction, petroleum refining, mining, manufacturing etc., produce large
amounts of hazardous wastes which cause air, water, and soil pollution and
consequently threaten human public health and the environmental security. The pollutants
are released to the environment in different forms, for example atmospheric
pollutants include toxic gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides,
ozone, etc.), suspended airborne particles, and volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), while soil and water pollutants may comprise of organic substances
(pesticides, insecticides, phenols, hydrocarbons, etc.), heavy metals (lead,
cadmium, arsenic, mercury, etc.), as well as microbial pathogens. These
environmental pollutants have a great potential to adversely influence the
human health (Fereidoun et al. 2007; Kampa and Castanas 2008), since they can
find their way into human body either through inhalation, ingestion, or
absorption (Ibrahim et al., 2016). Worldwide epidemiological studies
have shown that human exposure to respirable particulate matter is correlated
with the increase in cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Without
question, combustion is a major source through which particulate matter enters
the environment and it is therefore important to understand the characteristics
of these particles and their relation to adverse health effects. In addition to
environmental exposure through combustion-generated nanoparticles, another
human exposure route is the intentional use of nanoparticles in engineering
applications. The increasing use of nanomaterials to improve the consumer
products and medical treatments may significantly increase the potential for
human occupational and environmental exposure to nanoparticles. Only, recently
have the potential health impacts of such exposure been critically questioned
(DeLoid et al., 2014; Weidemann et al., 2016).


may play a role in many chronic diseases where infectious pathogens have not
been suspected, diseases that were previously attributed only to genetic
factors and lifestyle. These small particles, nanoparticles, have the ability
to enter, translocate within, and damage living organisms. This ability results
primarily from their small size, which allows them to penetrate physiological
barriers and travel within the circulatory systems of a host. The smallest
particles contain tens or hundreds of atoms, with dimensions at the scale of
nanometers, hence nanoparticles. The toxicity of each of these materials
depends greatly, however, on the particular arrangement of its many atoms. Considering
all the possible variations in shape and chemistry of even the smallest
nanoparticles, with only tens of atoms, yields a vast number of diverse
materials with potentially very different physical and toxicological properties.

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exposure to nanoparticles may cause serious damage to the human’s respiratory
tract, lung diseases, heart diseases, and premature death (Pui et al. 2014).
However, many emerging novelties of nanomaterials would expedite the rising of
potential risks to industrial workers, consumers, and the environment. Due to a
lack of complete standard diagnosis and guideline, the local medical department
refused to admit that an occupational hazard existed. Nanometer-sized particles
are created in countless physical processes from erosion to combustion, with various
health risks. Industrial nanoparticle materials today constitute a tiny but
significant pollution source that is, so far, literally buried beneath much
larger natural sources and nanoparticle pollution incidental to other human
activities. While uncontained nanoparticles clearly represent a serious health
threat, fixed nanostructured materials, such as thin film coatings, microchip
electronics, and many other existing nanoengineered materials, are known to be
virtually benign. Nanoparticles are emitted from natural and anthropogenic
sources and are produced via nanotechnology. Fast propagation of nano
technologies into different industries and consumer products is causing
exponential growth of nano material production. Hence, increasing amounts of
nanoparticles reach occupational settings and the indoor and outdoor
environments, thus representing a potentially serious hazard to human health (Nel
et al, 2006; Castranova 2011). Although, nano-size particles are capable of entering
the cell membranes their interactions with biological systems are relatively
unknown (Holsapple et al. 2005).

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