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The state of nation was C. There was widespread unemployment after
Painc of 1873. A large number of immigrants from Europe and China were driving down
the labor cost resulting in

9th March 1893 – 4th
March 1897

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Grover Cleveland


During Chilean controversy, when president
Harrison tried to exploit the conflict for his own political gains during the election
year, an ill Blaine intervened and reminded Harrison of importance of goals of Pan-American
conference. Thankfully due to Blaine’s actions and an apology from Chilean foreign
ministry, tensions between two nations were diffused.

Harrison boldy negotiated the establishment of
protectorate in Samoan islands that preseved the native ruling dynasty.
Although, Britain and Germany were not happy with final decision, Blain’s tenacity
and skillful negotiation managed to get favorable result for United states.

Harrison convened first Pan-American conference
with the goals of impressing latin american countries with size, wealth and Manufacturing
capabilities of United States. Although, first Pan-American conference achieved
few tangible successes, it had opened door for future imperial policies.

On Foreign affairs Harrison presidency deserves
a B+. Harrison recognized need to expand American commerce and to achieve that he
understood the need to increase united states influence especially in Americas.
For this reason, he appointed Blaine as his secreatary of state whose thoughts on
foreign policy were aligned with Harrison’s. Together, they implemented foreign
policies that created a solid foundation for imperialistic american designs for
future presidents of the 20th century.

The state of nation was B+.  At time
Benjamin took over presidency, Reconstruction was virtually complete, new inventions
were happening at accelerating pace, the industrial production was fast expanding,
and American manufacturers were eager for foreign markets as outlets for their
burgeoning surpluses.

9th March 1889 – 4th
March 1893


Benjamin Harrison


The state of nation was C. There was widespread unemployment after
Painc of 1873. A large number of immigrants from Europe and China were driving down
the labor cost resulting in

9th March 1885 – 4th
March 1889 and 9th March 1893 – 4th March 1897


Grover Cleveland


The state of nation was C. There was widespread unemployment after
Painc of 1873. A large number of immigra

19th September 1881 – 4th
March 1885


Chester A Arthur


Hayes presidency deserves a B grade. Hayes was
an assertive president who restored confidence in executive branch after
Johnson and Grant’s presidencies had eroded people confidence in executive
branch. He took initiatives that re-established people confidence in US
government. His policies enabled

Hayes attempted to reform the Civil services
by following the mantra of “You serve the party if you serve country first”. It
was common for the civil servants to be doing the party work and neglecting
official duties. Hayes issued an executive
order prohibiting political assessments and forbade management of political
parties, conventions, and campaigns by civil servants.

Hayes kept his promise made during inaugural
speech that he would be willing to remove the troops supporting governments of
South Carolina and Louisina if Democrats in those states will uphold the voting
rights of the black people. Hayes kept his promise but Democrats broke their
part of the deal and quickly started the process of disfranchising black
people. Although, his decision ended period of Reconstruction of South, this
cause had already been lost due to failed implemention of Reconstruction
policies by previous presidents as well as lost interest of North due to their
own economic and political troubles.

Hayes successfully dealt with inflation crisis
caused by speculation and Panic of 1873. People had less confidence in green
backs due to percieved unwillingness of governement to reimburse greeback with
gold. Hayes brought back gold standard in US economy which helped regained
confidence in US government.

Hayes’s presidency deserves a B on domestic

Hayes was a big supporter of Panama canal to
be under United States control. Like many of the predecessors, he believed that
any European influence in Northern and Central Americas will not be good for
American interests.

Hayes ordered his army to keep Mexican bandits
from invading into US territory. This didn’t go well with Mexican dictator Diaz
and he sent an army to protect its borders. Despite initial tough talk, Diaz
agreed to do joint patrols by both armies to discourage bandits. This resulted
in a reduced number of bandit raids from across the border.

Chinese immigrants had been embarking on
California shores since 1850s. The 1868 Burlingame treaty only accelerated
their arrival. But the completion of Transcontinental rairoad, flood of cheaper
products from east and cheap labor cost of immigrants resulted in lesser
opportunities for white laborers. The White labors started becoming hostile
towards chinese labors. Hayes renegotiated Burlingame treaty. The immigration treaty enabled the United States to
regulate, limit, and suspend, but not prohibit the coming of Chinese laborers.

Rutherford Hayes’s presidency deserves a B+ on
foreign affairs. He restored law and order along the Mexican border by
extending powers to US army to pursure bandits inside Mexican territory.
Similarly, He re-negotiated immigration treaty with China to regulate and limit
immigration of Chinese laborers.


Panic of 1873 resulted in one of worst and
longest depressions in American history. The depression affected every industry
and brought railroad expansion almost to a halt. This caused a significant
increase in unemployment.

White democrats had come back into power in
all but three southern states. In most southern states, they had mostly
disenfranchised black people. Democrats were now threatening to win
presidential election. Due to economic and political setbacks in North,
Republicans had also given up on agenda of Reconstruction of South.

The state of nation was C. There was
widespread unemployment after Painc of 1873. A large number of immigrants from
Europe and China were driving down the labor cost resulting in frustration
among existing White labor force. The period of Reconstruction was coming to an
end without fulfilling its intended goals.

9th March 1877 – 4th
March 1881


Rutherford B Hayes




Overall, two terms of Presidency would deserve
a C-. His first term would deserve a B+ for taking initiative of Reconstruction
and good intentions of Peace policy. But, the failed implementations of both during
second term as well as continuous stream of scandals during first and second
term lost all the ground covered during the first term. Except, first two
years, Grant showed little proactiveness in governing the country. Grant had a
huge challenge and huge opportunity to lead the country into bright new future.
He was a brilliant army General who was a reluctant politician. Unlike his
aggressive leadership on battlefield, he ended up serving the country in a
passive manner. Thankfully there were good number of enterpreneurs, inventors
and scientists at the time whose relentless work was preparing United States
for a brigher future!

At his inaugural adress, Grant announced a new
American Indian Peace Policy. It was designed to reform the Indian Bureau and
remove corrupt agents, also called for rigorous agricultural training on
reservations and established schools and churches that would transform Indians
into Christian citizens. However, these changes fell well short of what Grant
would have liked. American
Indians on reservations had little chance of creating farms out of barren land
and were beset by poverty.

Grant’s presidency, especially his second term
was rocked by continued scandals. Although, he was personally never
investigated, many members of his administration including his own vice
president and personal secretary were found to be involeved in the scandals.
Even though Grant was never investigated, these continuous stream of scandals
probably stopped Grant from pursuing other political agendas he may have had.

At the beginning of the presidency, Grant
vigrously pursued goals of Reconstruction. Grant was able to pass legislation
that allowed a person of any race and color be able to vote. Congress also
passed the enforcement act to help protect the right to vote. Although, laws
were enacted and initially implemented in good spirit, they failed to achieve
its intended goals. White Southernes found illegal ways to stop black
population from voting. Also, republican governments during intial
Reconstuction period were corrupt and self serving and hence failed to connect
with people of South. Since, Planter class was allowed to paticipate in
political process, they started to regain control of the political system in
South and endedup controlling most of the South by end of his first term. At
the same time, politicians of North started to focus more on local issues to
ensure their strenght in North.

Ulysses Grant presidency deserves a C on
domestic affairs. At the beginning, Grant wanted to preserve legacy of civil
war by reonciling with South and at the same time ensuring the rights of  newly freed black population are protected.
During first few years, he vigrously pursured this goal but towards the ends of
the second term, he had almost given up goals of Reconstuction. Other than,
initial success of Reconstuction, his presidency was mostly marred by scandals
and was a missed opportunity to Reconstuct South by enforcing positive reforms
that would have helped create positive change.

President Grant was very much interested in
annexing island of Santo Domingo. There were several reasons for it. US navy
wanted a naval base in Carribean and Santo Domingo bay met Navy’s requirements.
Grant also thought that Santo Domingo island could give black population of
South an option to negotiate with white sourtherners if they had an option to
move to island.

Both Grant and his secretary of state Fish had
interests in expanding United states influence in Carribean islands. When there
was a rebellion against Spainsh occupation in Cuba, there was an opportunity of
aid the rebels and gain the influence. But, both Grant and Fish instead decided
to negotiate with Spain on acquiring the island. When thos talks, they
abandoned the idea of annexing Cuba.

During civil war Britain had declared
neutrality but many of its citizes who had vested interests in Cottor trade,
deciced to align with South. English companies built warships for South that
were used to disrupt North’s trade with Europe. After war was over, Union
claimed that Britain owned it compensation for disrupting trade and prolonging
the war. Secretary of State Fish was able to convince the president that it was
in best interest of Union to have good long term relations with Britain. As
part of negotiation, Britain paid Unites states $15.5 million and two nations
were able to settle many of the fishing and boundary issues. This was one (and
and very few) of lasting legacies of Grant’s presidencies.

Ulysses Grant presidency deserves a B on
foreign affairs. Most of credits of this (like his predecssor), goes to
Secretary of State Fish. He took intiative on many of important decisions that
had lasting effects.

New advances in steel techonlogy enabled
tilling of midwest soil which was not considered good for agriculture before.
This enabled midwest to become another source of agriculture produced after

The discovery of Petroleum oil in Pennsylvania
and Ohio created an OIL boon that lasted for decades.

By late 1968, Transcontinental rairoads line
was mostly complete and connected North and West regions of United states. This
enabled migration of large section of immigrants to mid west region.

The state of nation was a B-. In
North, technical advances enabled quick growth and progress across multiple
industries. Rairoads were expanding in North and West enabling migration of new
migrants to the west. Standard OIL company was providing kerosine and oil to
all over united states. Most of southern states were still dependent of agriculture
but their agriculture economy had changed due to new laws forbidding slavery
resulting in lower returns for plantation owners.

The state of nation was C

9th March 1869 – 4th
March 1877


Ulysses S Grant



Overall, Andrew Johnson presidency deserves a
D. He came into power at challenging times after Civil war had ended. He had a
huge challenge to reconstruct the nation, especially South after the civil war.
Instead of implementing fundamental ideas that led to Civil war, e.g. “Civil
rights for All”, he prioritized to appease South to reconcile and join back the
Union. It could be attributed to his own racist inclinations or he truly
believed that some of the basic rights like Voting is a state matter. Either
ways, he was on wrong side of the history. Some of his decisions simply delayed
equal rights for black people by another century.

Most Republican congressmen were in favor of
giving recently freed black people voting rights. This proposal never
materialized because Andrew Johnson’s believed that voting is a state right and
it should be left for States to decide.

President also vetoed landmark Civil Rights
Act of 1866 which defined citizens as all persons born in United States (except
Native Americans). Bill also listed basic rights of citizens, including right
to testify in count, to make contracts, to own a property and to enjoy full and
equal benefits of law. Even though this Bill was eventually passed by
Republican majority, it shows Johnson’s racist inclinations and unwillingness
to work with Congress on some basic civil issues.

Andrew Johnson’s lenient reconstruction policy
after the war, let most members of old planter class back into power at state
level. Due to this, almost all states implemented state laws that severely
limited the freedom of the slaves. This significantly diluted one of the goals
of abolitionist movement. Andrew Johnson’s lenient reconstruction policy
resulted in revolt from Republican congressmen. They created their own Restoration
committee to evaluate Johnson’s policies and voted not to admit newly elected
Southern representatives or to recognize newly formed state governments.

Andrew Johnson deserves an F on domestic
issues. Andrew Johnson had a huge challenge and an opportunity to reconstruct South
after Civil war. But, he couldn’t work with congressmen of his own party to
drive a unified charter for the reconstruction. The relations between Congress
and Johnson were so bad that Congress moved to impeach him.

Seward negotiated the sale of Alaskan
territory from Russia to USA. He thought it was in broader interests of United
States to occupy as much territory in north to ensure security of national

Johnson improved relations with Great Britain
by enforcing neutrality laws against Irish American Fenians who had been
breaking the laws by continually making attacks across the border inorder to
annex the Canadian territory.

In 1860, French had occupied key parts of
Mexico and Napoleon had installed a puppet government in Mexico. Seward
realized that the presence of European powers in northern americas is not in
the interest of United States. Seward sent 50,000 soldiers to Mexico border to
persuade French to leave Mexico soil. Napoleon agreed and left Mexico.

Andrew Johnson presidency deserves a B on
foreign affairs and main credit for it goes to his secretary of state Seward.
Andrew Johnson appointed an able secretary of state who was able to help him
make some important foreign decisions during a period of chaos in the country.
These decisions turned out to be an important milestone for country.

In later part
of civil war, Union army devised tactics to destroy all confederate assets
including military, industrial and civilian properties. The idea was to disrupt
already depleted economy of south and bring the war to a halt through war of
attrition. Sherman’s “March to the sea” achieved exactly that. But, at the same
it also made everyday life even more difficult.

In South, White male population was decimated
by the war. The survivors straggled home and found a new strange world waiting
for them. Former slaves were free and had the same rights as everyone else.
Union soldiers were patrolling to enforce the new rules. It was as if their whole
way of living has been swept away by a Tornado.

Abolition of Slavery caused the entire southern
economy to be restructured. Agricultural economy was no longer as profitable as
free labor was no longer available.

The state of nation was a C. A four year long
civil war had just ended. There were still deep divisions between people of
North and South over economic and political issues. Economy of South was in
distress due to four years of Civil war. An excellent leader of nation,
President Abraham Lincoln had just been assassinated. An extraordinary
leadership was needed to heal the wounds of civil war and ignite economic

15th April 1865 – 4th
March 1869

National Union / Democratic

Andrew Johnson

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