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The six fundamental movements of the major body segments
are flexion (the decrease between the angle of two body segments), extension (increase
of the angle between two body segments), abduction (movement away from the
midline), adduction (movement toward the midline), rotation (movement of a
joint about the long axis, and circumduction (geometric cone movement). All six
of these movements are used commonly in all different kinds of exercises, from
dynamic stretches to lifts. Dumbbell bicep curls are an example of flexion.
Dumbbell lateral raises are an example of abduction. Pectoral Flys are an
example of adduction. Ankle circles are an example of circumduction. Putting
your leg behind the body on the standing hip machine is an example of an
extension. The backhand on a tennis stroke is an example of rotation. An example of an exercise
that uses all three movements is the barbell standing squat. The recovery phase
of the exercise features flexion. In the effort phase there is hip extension
and adduction, knee extension and ankle plantar flexion. Understanding the six
different fundamental movements of joints is very important for trainers. It is
quite important to have a good idea of how muscles function, and to understand
muscle contractions and the way they work. There are many different ways to
build muscle, whether that is through flexion or abduction. Understanding the
different types of movements and the major movements of the body are pivotal
for trainers to make sure clients perform exercises with correct form without
seeing them hurting themselves. For example, when performing abduction, it is
important the client is maintaining stability and going straight up with the
exercise in order that the client does not injure himself. Furthermore, when
performing lateral raises, it is important that the client does not go up to
far past the shoulder with the dumbbell in order to build muscle the most
efficient way possible. Understanding kinesiology and body mechanics is pivotal
in making sure the client performs in the most efficient way possible. 

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