The synthesis of CNPs had been studied intensively because it has a wide range of interests in industry, biomedical, environment and also food industry. For example, curcumin loaded folate-modified-chitosan-nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized and fabricated via self-assembling process 3. The anticancer agent doxorubicin (DOX) was successfully embedded within the CNP, confirming the ability to use this system as a drug delivery vector 4. Wu et al. had prepared Res-loaded CS-TPP particles with the size of 172–217 nm by the ionic crosslinking method . DOX-loaded CNPs showed excellent anti-proliferative characteristics against HeLa cells with favourable biocompatibility against normal cells .
Other than that, chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles to protect antioxidant activity, controlled release property and enhanced bioavailability 22. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified chitosan (Cs) nanocapsules were developed as a carrier for thymoquinone 26. Safa K.H. et al.
reported that warfarin-?-cyclodextrin (WAF-?-CD) loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles for transdermal delivery prepared by ionic gelation method tripolyphosphate (TPP) . Apart from that, olanzapine loaded chitosan nanoparticles for a nose to brain targeting were prepared by ionic gelation between chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions . S. Moideen et al. prepared atenolol encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles by using ionic gelation technique which involves chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions . D. Madan et al. reported ibuprofen loaded in chitosan microspheres by using a glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent by using different methods and varying the process conditions 23.
Other than that, the encapsulation of retinol in chitosan nanoparticles reduced the irritation, toxicity of retinol, and also used for acne and anti-wrinkle treatment . The encapsulation of the anti-Alzheimer’s drug tacrine into chitosan nanoparticles was prepared via ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as cross-linking agent 27. Woranuch S. et al. states that to enhance the thermal stability of eugenol, it need be encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles through an emulsion–ionic gelation crosslinking technique .
Besides that, chitosan nanoparticles will be used as a candidate for drug delivery using carboplatin as a drug to treat breast cancer via an ionic interaction procedure . The anticancer drug letrozole (LTZ) was formulated using chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) with the crosslinking agent sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) . Last but not least, diclofenac-loaded chitosan nanoparticles are expected to be potential carriers for ophthalmic drug delivery .