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The sun is the natural source of energy which radiates
approximately 12 x 1016

W on the surface of the earth. That huge amount of
energy is by far over the need of power consumption even it is exceeded tens of
hundreds of the times. Covering 0.16% of the land only with even less than 15%
efficiency of solar PV cells would provide over 15 TW of power, which is almost
double of the energy conversion from the fossil fuel currently being consumed. This
comparison shows the importance of Solar energy if utilized faithfully.

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From the distance, solar energy arrives on surface of
earth disturbs the operating steps of capture, conversion and storage. Energy
of the sun arrives on earth in the form of spectrum from infrared to
ultraviolet. The energy of the radiation must be captured as excited
electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor, a dye or chromosphere or as heat in a
thermal storage medium.

Excited electrons and holes can be tapped off for
immediate conversion to electrical power or transferred to biological or
chemical molecules for conversion to fuel.

As the photosynthesis is the process the that produces
sugar, take it as fuel for those plants which helps them to grow. We are now
learning to mimic the process of photosynthesis to make something that helps to
produce energy from the light. Since in the natural cycles such as day-night,
winter-summer, sunny-cloudy and all other atmospheric conditions, the solar
energy proves to be a clean, pollution free and vast source of energy. There
are various methods for producing electricity from light, “Photovoltaic” is
most promising and most efficient way.

The increased use of fossil fuel has increased the
global pollution. Since Pakistan is considered to be the 7th most
affected country from global warming, it has been necessary that fossil fuel
needs to be replaced by a pollution free production of electricity. Benefits
that solar photovoltaic provides over fossil fuel production of electricity are
given as;

·       
 Consumes no fuel to operate

·       
Have a rapid
response as compared to power plants

·       
Able to operate at
moderate temperature, even at lower temperature

·       
Produce no
pollution while producing electricity

·       
Have wide range of
power capacity from microwatts to megawatts

 

 

 

1.2     Solar Efficiency

 

          However, despite those benefits over fossil fuel
energy resources, Solar PV has not yet come even close to replacing major power
resource that have been used till date. It is still impossible to generate
power in those areas at which sun radiation are received or where luminous
intensity is lesser. We need more advanced technologies from manufacturers of
Solar PV, but module improvement and constructions changes are workable
approaches to make Solar more power efficient. For that this project is being
built to make the most out of solar energy.

One way to make Solar PV more efficient is to keep Solar PV aligned with
the sun radiations in day time such that maximum possible radiation are
received at Solar PV. Goal of this project is to make a prototype to rotate the
Solar PV where the light intensity is higher

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