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The Breathtaking Respiratory SystemFunction:According to Elaine N. Marieb’s book,”Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology”, the job of the respiratory system is to keep the body constantly supplied with oxygen and to remove the waste product known as carbon dioxide. Another less known function of the respiratory system, is that it also helps maintain the balance of acid in our bloodstream (Collins).Organs:The respiratory system is composed of the following main parts:- The nasal cavity (also referred as the nose): The part of the respiratory system which works as an air passage. It basically takes air into the body, warms it up and also moistens it up.- The oral cavity (also referred as the mouth): This part of the respiratory system functions as an additional air passage, also known as an ”emergency” air passage if the nasal cavity is blocked with mostly mucus or bacteria.- Larynx (also referred as the voice box): The larynx is the part of the respiratory system that allows us to talk. The vocal cords are located here and vibrate in different ways in order to make the sounds that our speech is composed of. – Pharynx (also referred as the throat): This part of the respiratory system are the cavities (empty spaces) that are located behind the nose and the mouth. Here, the air is cleaned thoroughly and is then translated into the trachea.- Trachea (also referred as the windpipe): The trachea is the long tube that transports the inhaled air into the bronchi, which are inside the lungs.- Bronchi: The bronchi are two smaller tubes, which are connected to the trachea. These tubes lead into each side of the lungs. One for the right lung and one for the left lung.- Bronchioles: The bronchioles are the smaller branches of the bronchi, and are located inside the lungs. This part of the respiratory system contains the little air sacs known as alveoli. These little sacks permit the rapid absorption and exchange of oxygen into carbon dioxide.- Lungs: The lungs are these two sponge-like organs, coated with a layer of serous membranes known as pleura. The lungs are filled with capillaries and air sacs,  which perform the rapid exchange of gases.- Diaphragm: The diaphragm is a sheet-like muscle which is located below the lungs. This muscle contracts and relaxes constantly, and forces oxygen to go in and out of the lungs.Homeostasis: The respiratory system works with various different systemsin order to keep the body functioning normally. Among these, there are the interactions that the respiratory system has with the circulatory and the nervous systems.- The circulatory system: The respiratory and the circulatory systems ‘work’ together in a process that basically keeps us alive. These two systems work together in the oxygenation and distribution of our blood.To put it on more serious terms, the respiratory system produces the oxygenated blood that the heart requires. The circulatory keeps the oxygen rich and the carbon dioxide rich blood in a cycle between the lungs and the heart, keeping both organs and systems alive.- The nervous system: When the respiratory system works with the nervous system, it allows us to identify and recognize odors in our surroundings. Thanks to their “teamwork”, parts of the brain that are related to the memory light up with our sense of smell. This reaction causes us to remember stuff with specific and similar odors. Thanks to this, we can also identify certain “dangerous” smells and avoid the problematic situation. The respiratory system and the nervous system also work in a far more vital homeostasis function. The nervous system orders the diaphragm to contract and relax, therefore making us breath; While the respiratory system oxygenates the blood that the brain requires to function. Like previously stated before, the circulatory keeps both types of blood circulating on a cycle which keeps both systems alive. If the respiratory system stopped working, it would trigger a domino effect of smaller deaths, bringing the circulatory and nervous systems to also die slowly due to the lack of oxygen. Specialist: A pulmonologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosing and treating of the lungs, bronchial tubes, and respiratory tract. Doctors trained in pulmonology tend to diagnose conditions like: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, tuberculosis, emphysema, chest infections, and AIDS (Sharecare). For example: Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease that causes mucus to accumulate in the lungs, making the afflicted have difficulty to breathe. This same secretions also scar the lungs, produce infection and ends up in emphysema (shortness of breath due to the over-inflation of the alveoli).Sadly there is no cure so far, but there are certain treatments that alleviate the situation. Enzymes are injected into the patient in order to clear the lung secretions. And antibiotics are administered in order to control the secondary infections.Amazing Facts (According to LiveScience):- When we hyperventilate, it pumps up the production of acids in the stomach, therefore making us hungry. The more breathing an individual does, the faster he/she will get hungry.- If all the capillaries inside the lung were removed and then placed end to end, it would reach 1,600 kilometers long! Also, if all the alveoli inside the lungs were removed and then squished together, it would expand to the size of an entire tennis court. Which is 759 feet squared.- It is possible to live a normal life with only one lung.- The right lung is a little bit bigger than the left lung, and this is due to the heart and its location.- We lose a lot of water when we breath. We exhale half a liter of water through the simple process of breathing.

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