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            The Jewish community which is in Rome is known as the oldest Jewish
community in the Europe. Also, it is known as the oldest settlement in the
world and it dates to the 161. B.C.E. When Jonahan, Eupolemus, Jason Ben and
Eleazar came as envoys of Judah Maccabee, Other delegations had been sent by
Hamonean rulers in 150 and 139 B.C.E. By the time, Jewish prisoners of war had
been brought to Rome to be made slaves after the Romans invaded Judea in 63
B.C.E. Jewish merchants who were looking for the job opportunities went to the
Rome and in that time, Jewish delegates also went to the Rome with diplomatic
missions. Thus, people who went to the Rome made decision to stay and live in
there and population rate of Jewish started to increase. Relationships with the rulers in Rome were good
although treatment that is applied by the Romans in Palestine to the Jews was
harsh. For example, it was known well that Julius Caser was friends with Jews
and he accepted Jews to settle anywhere in Rome. According to the historians,
Roman Jews were crying all day and night on the Caesar’s tomb when Caesar was
killed by Brutus in 44 B.C.E. Augustus acted toward the Jews and he planned
grain distribution in the way that Jewish Sabbath cannot interfere. Two
synagogues were built by the slaves who was freed by Augustus (14 B.C.E) and
Agrippa(12 B.C.E).In the classic period, Jews were exiled from Rome for two
times in 19 C.E-49 C.E. Reason of the first exile was a  Roman woman who was attracted to Judaism
Fulvia. The second deportation
happened because of disturbances that caused by the rise of Christianity.
However, it is not certain that these measures were carried out or that period
of deportation took a long time. In Palestine, during the Jewish-Roman battles
66-73 and 132-135, Jewish prisoners of war was bringing to the Rome and they
were accepted as slaves. Majority of the oldest Jewish Roman families follow
ancestry in the city to this time. Jewish academicians who are from Israel were
coming to the Rome in 95-96. Jews were allowed as Roman citizens by Caracella.The Roman Jewish
community became firmly established since the second half of the first century
C.E. Most of the community were peddlers, craftsman and shopkeepers. However, there
were other actors who became actors, poets and doctors. Satiric poets of the time,for example Martial, indicated the
choked activities of the Jewish peddlers and beggars in their poetries.
Evidence has been found that twelve synagogues were open during this period
(although not at the same time). Unfortunately, none of those synagogues have
been protected. Since 2nd C.B.C, Jews were living in
the Rome. Laws that allowed to protect to worship Jews chose had been supported
by Caesar and Augustus. Then, Synagogues were allowed to be able to collect the
tax that paid yearly by every Jewish men for temple maintenance and classified
as colleges to get around Roman rules banning secret societies. By time, there
were some problems and one of these problems is exiled of the Jewish in 139
B.C. in 19 A.D. They had been banished from the Rome but after that, they had
been allowed to turn back and go on their lives by independently existence
under the Roman laws.

In the history of Jews in Judaea, there were some revolts against to the
Roman laws by the Jews. The first revolt was the consequent of long series of
clashes in the small groups of Jews that had been responded with sporadic
resistance against the Romans. After the loss of AD 66 Jews, when Jews revolt
they discarded Romans from the Jerusalem and they destroyed in the pass of
Beth-Horon that is a Roman punitive force under Gallus which is the imperial
legate in Syria. Then, a revolutionist government was established and
population of the whole country had extended as country. Vespasian had been
sent to the country to finish the rebellion by the Romans and he met with
Josephus who is a historian to go to Galilee that the historian Josephus headed
the Jewish forces together. The army of Josephus faced with the army of
Vespasian and they runned. Josephus had given up and Roman forces had swept the
country after the fall of castle of Jatapata. Jerusalem had fell in AD 70 on
the 9th of the month of Av also, Jewish state collapsed and the
Temple had been burned. However, castle of Masada could not be conquered until
April 73 by the Roman general Flavius Silva. This revolt had been some wars and
revolts; First Jewish Roman War, Kitos war and BAR Kohba Revolt. The First
Jewish-Roman War had started in 66 CE and finished in 73 CE. This war is called
as the First Jewish Revolt or the Great Jewish Revolt. It continued until
destruction of the 2nd temple and of Jerusalem and fall of Galilee
in 67 C.E and to the Fiscus Judaicus in 70 C.E and finally the falling of the
Masada in 73 C.E. Then Kitos war had happened in 115 C.E to 117 C.E. and it is
known as ”Rebellion of Exile”.Bar Kohba revolt had
started in 132 B.C and finished in 136 C.E. This revolt is called as te Second
Jewish-Roman War or also it is known as the Third Jewish-Roman War.(?f Kitos
War is counted)

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In 66 C.E, The First Jewish-Roman War started because of high tension of
religious between Greek and by the time it became worse because of attacks to
the Roman citizens and anti-taxation protests. Then, there had happened a
revolts as a response for people who had been executed Jews of up to 6,000 in
Jerusalem and the Roman plunder of the Second Jewish Temple. Garrison of the
Roman military of Judaea had been occupied by the Jewish rebels. The king
Agrippa II who had stand with Romans had runned with the important people of
Rome from Jerusalem. When it had been understood that the rebellion cannot be
controlled by people, Cestius Gallus and the legate of Syria had brought the
army of Syria, to be able to restore order and quell the revolt, depends on
reinforced by auxiliary troops XII Fulminate. Although all improvements, Jewish
rebels ambush and defeated the Syrian Legion at the Battle of Beth Horon with
6,000 Roman people and Legion Aquila could not be found by anyone. They had
lost and this lost had been cause of shock for Roma leaders. Duty of quell the
continuance of the riot in Judaea had been given to the general Vespasian who
is so experienced and his son and he was second-in-command. Four legions had
been given to the Vespasian and he had been assisted by the forces of King
Agrippa II and he had invaded Galilee in 67 CE. A campaign had been started to
punish the people and to destroy castles of rebels while the attack was avoided
by forces of Titus in Jerusalem. In months, one of the most important castle of
Jewish ‘Galilee’ had been taken over by Vespasian and Titus.

After 47 days, Jotapata under command of Yosef
ben Matitiyahu overran. At the same time, conquering plan of Sicarii leader
Menahem was not successful in in Jerusalem and this attempt was cause of his
execution. Judean government oust the leader of a village, who is Simon
Bar-Giora, frm the city. Thus Ananus Ben Ananus started to make the city more
powerful place. So many refugees and rebels of Zealot had come to the city and
those people were driven from Galilee and they were cause of political problems
in Jerusalem. It was proven that Zealot factions of the Northern Revolt under
the command of John of Giscala and Eleazar ben Simon and confrontation between
the mainly Sadducee Jerusalemites. Ananus ben Ananus who fighted on the side of
the Zealots with Edomites entering the city and the forces had been damaged. Simon Bar Giora who commanded tov15.000 soldiers had
been invited to the Jerusalem to be able to stand against to the Zealots by
the leaders of Sadduce and he controlled the big part of city fastly. Unfortunately,
fights between Elazar and Bar Giora had continued until 69 C.E. Because of the
war in the city and political issues, army operations almost stopped and
Vespasian went back to the Rome then, he had been allowed as a new king in 69
C.E. With Vespasian’s departure, Titus besieged the centre of rebel resistance
in Jerusalem in early 70 C?.E. Although the first two walls had been breached in three
weeks, a stubborn had prevented the wall that is third of the Rome Army and the
strongest one to be broken. After seven months, Romans had succeeded to breach
the weak Jewish forces in 70 C.E. Following the fall of Jerusalem, Titus left
for Rome, while Legion
X Fretens is defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on,
finalizing the Roman campaign in Masada in 73/74 CE

Caesarea Eusebius and some Christian resources
noted that Constantine had experienced a striking occurrence in 312 at the
Battle of the Milvian Bridge, and after that Constantine wanted to be sovereign
empire of the West.In accordance with these sources, The Emperor Constantine
was looking at the sun before the war and he saw a glowing cross on it and saw
some  Greek words which mean a sign of victory. The Constantine ordered
his soldiers to decorate their protective shields with the symbol which
represents Christianity and after that Constantine and his soldiers became
victorious side .After the war, the new emperor came to ignore the altar of the
gods arranging in the Capitoline, and  did not make traditional sacrifices
to celebrate a triumphant Roman entry,  rather than going directly to the
empire’s palace. Nevertheless, the most powerful people of the empire,
especially the superior army authorities, did not change their religions into
Christianity and became member of a Roman traditional religions; Constantine’s
rule seemed at least willing to comfort these groups.After the war , Roman
money included the Roman Gods and this situation took 8 years. The memorials
that be built , like the Arch of Constantine, did not contain  any signs
about the Christianity.  

Constantine and Licinius declared that it is
right that each of the Christians and others must  have the freedom to
believe the  best-appearing religion in 313 so he tolerated beliefs which
are Christianity and other religions. Milano? Edict took the previous Galerius’ Tolerance Edict a step
forward in 311 and ?confiscated the Church goods. Milano Edict is
 declaration  for tolerance of Christianity in the Roman Empire. The
Roman emperors concluded a political agreement between Constantine I and
Licinius in Milan on February 313. In June 313 Licinius declared to Eastern
Rome that everyone had the rights to worship God  they wanted. Christians
thus have legal rights, including the establishment of churches. According to Edict,
the property seized in the state would be returned to the Christians


Constitution of Constantine I, and an alleged
religious order in the Roman Empire; in fact, is a breakdown of the
negotiations between Licinius and Constantine in Milan, a legitimate document,
a complete breakdown of the freedom of the nobility, the compensation of the
sufferings of Christians, and so on.


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