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The Scopes “Monkey Trial” was very popular and a household known case because of how people from all over the country chose sides for or against it regardless of race, political views or region. Throughout the 1920’s, Darwinism was a topic that many people had different viewpoints of. The religious view was that Darwinism is in no way true and should not be taught to the youth because God created the Earth in six days and created man, they saw the thought of evolution as preposterous and completely irrational. Modernists on the other hand accepted Darwinism as a reasonable explanation for how humans, animals, plants, and any other living organism came to be the way as it is and appreciated the scientific value that it brought along with it.
In Document Project 21, they go more in depth with how religious fundamentalists vs modernists felt about the situation. They state within the first paragraph “Religious fundamentalists felt the era’s urban intellectualisms would destroy the rural, Protestant America they loved” (Hewitt & Lawson 160). This shows that Traditionalists were afraid of science changing the direction that the nation was moving in, they were very unwilling to move away from their normal day-to-day lifestyle traditions. The primary reason the trial came about was because after the law was passed in Tennessee that the teaching of evolution was strictly prohibited, the American Civil Liberties Union did their best to find a teacher to intentionally go against this law, that man was John Scopes. “This was the first case to be broadcast over radio because of how controversial it was” (Hewitt & Lawson 160), this meant that every single person in America knew what was going on and all were very clear in what their thoughts on the matter were. The outcome of the case really did not definitively choose a winning side, Scopes was given a $100 fine as punishment, but this did continue the question of is America a traditionalist society or will they be more willing in the future to move into a more scientific understand of things? Moving forward to today, it is fairly clear that science did end up winning the battle.
Document 21.1 talks about the Butler Act, the very law that states it is “unlawful for any teacher … to teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals” (Butler). This law was the reason that the Scopes “Monkey Trial” even happened, this law was put into place because of the recent findings of evolution and the theory that man evolved from primates. The thought of man coming from a lower order animal was not something that parents wanted their children to be taught, or people wanted to believe, because of the fear from traditionalists thinking this would change their way of life, it was banned in all educational environments.
Document 21.3 is primarily about William Jennings Bryan Trial Speech, however during his speech he does state a piece about the people of the United States that did resonate not only with the courtroom, but with the people around the nation. Bryan stated how many people were unhappy with the teaching of evolution because A. It is not what they believe to be true, but more importantly B. They were paying teachers to teach their children and they did not want part of their education to be something that went very evidently against their personal beliefs. In the document he states “They say we all believe in the Bible for it is the overwhelming belief in the state, but we will not teach that Bible which we believe even to our children through teachers that we pay with our money” (Bryan). Bryan expresses his and many parents dissatisfaction with the fact that children were being taught something that they didn’t believe, but also that they weren’t allowed to be taught something that the majority of people in the state do believe.
The poem by Mrs. E. P. Blair in Document 21.5 is from the perspective of a female activist, one of the many who was dissatisfied with the teachings of evolution. During the poem she says; “Their forces are clad in garments great, of science and law, with the camouflage cloak of knowledge to hide their claw…” (Blair). Blair is afraid that the advancements in science are going to change her traditional religious values that she very much cherishes, she does not believe in Darwinism and believes that the theory of evolution is teaching children the wrong things.
The Scopes “Monkey Trial” caused debates throughout the nation on what was right and what was wrong, ultimately neither side was proved to be right or wrong but it did make the Citizens of the United States think about this matter very carefully. This case changed the education system in America, eventually evolution was taught in schools and is still now being taught today. 

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