The increase in the number of vast variety of smartdevices enabled with multiple sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope,magnetometer, proximity sensor, fingerprint detector to name a few has resultedin an exponential increase in the volume, variety, velocity and veracity ofdata , leading to the advent of a new wave of computing driven by IoT and bigdata. Over 12.5 billion devices were already connected in 2010 and about 50billion devices will be connected by 2020 3. FIGURE 1. Number of devices versus Year Graph The coming era of Internet of things will connect eachand every device in its way to a huge shared database which will enable dataanalysts to study and recognize data patterns and make our lives automated,easier, and smatter than ever. Today not much is known about the impacts of IoTservice to consumer behaviour.
From the consumer point of view, IoT is bothopportunity and possible danger. Given the importance of understanding consumerfor successful IoT service spread in the market, it is critical to researchmajor factors and dynamics affecting IoT consumer attitude. Section IIChallenges The real challenge for IoT environment is how to analyzethe large file of information from all sources and take action in real time,the complexity of Internet of Things combined with high expectation created byinternet , mobile devices and 24×7 IT environment has made the need newanalytics approaches and technologies more urgent. Achieving desired businessobjectives requires the ability to act in real time to take advantage ofopportunities and address problems quickly .In Pre-Internet of Things era anissue of typical supply chain problem could take two to three day cycles toresolve the problem and obtain satisfactory results, but in Internet of Thingstime to action is in minutes , seconds, or microseconds for example it shouldnot take more than thirty minutes for provisioning electric service, not morethan thirty seconds to act on information from devices ,and not more than 5milliseconds to address a security breach.
Connectivity of devices and serversseems pretty easy from a distance but there’s a lot more to deal with as whenwe deploy out these connected devices globally, we have hundreds of thousandsof devices connected over multiple networks of internet, cell towers, proxyservers, firewall, and lots of things that disrupt our connectivity, listedbelow are the major challenges faced by IoT : Signaling: When multiple devices are connected to each other thedata they absorb or generate becomes important, we want to have reliablesignalling or transmission of data because sometimes these devices will betalking to the server to collect data or sometimes the sever needs to talk tothe devices and sometimes these devices need to talk to each other but in anyof the case there may be an issue in going through tunnels or connectivitydrop-off , thus there should be reliable way to know that when stream of data is sent its going to arrivesuccessfully on the other side all the time. Security: When data stream is sent or received over a device it should be madesure that the device has the authorization to receive or send that data. Thenetwork should be able to deal with open ports, the devices sending andreceiving data should not have open ports over the internet as there will bechances of data being tempted to hack attempts through these open ports,furthermore it will be complicated to predict the device listening throughopen ports. There should be a bidirectional communication but there shouldn’tbe any open ports.
Most importantly the data being send or received over theseIoT devices should be encrypted. There should be end-to-end encryption Active listening: There should be a mechanism to know if the devices isactive or not while sending or receiving the signal ,for example if there is aconnectivity drop-off issue then then the transmission of data should be heldstill unless the device regains itsconnectivity, so that there is no loss of data .Power Consumption: Power Consumption is one of themajor factors that holds back IoT from global adoption. The IoT devices shouldconsume less power even with all the services they provide.
Processor Consumption: The devices should not just reduce power consumptionbut also the CPU or the processor consumption should be as small as possible.The device should not drain off hundred percent of its CPU in signaling andtransmission of data. Bandwidth: The devices should be able to do all these stuffswith low bandwidth not only because high bandwidth will be expensive but alsobecause imagine hundreds of thousands of devices sending requests, response,signals back to the server then there may be a huge server issue as the servertries to absorb all these data. Section IIIOpportunities IoT refers to the connection of devices to theinternet via Internet Protocol in which each and every device has a unique id .
TheInternet of things digitizes physical assets ,sensors, devices , machinesgateways and network, it connects people to things and things to things in realtime . Many industry experts and excited consumers imagineInternet of Things as the next revolutionary concept in the IT industry becauseit will be the future of the way business, governments and consumers interactwith the physical world. The Internet of Things is a scenario in which objectsand people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability toautomatically transfer data over a network without requiring human to human orhuman to computer interaction that is everything is connected over IP and willinteract with each other based on predefined logic. Example the air compressorof the refrigerator can send notification to the manufacturing company when itrequires a service or when the amount of gas filled in the compressor fallsbelow the critical level, the company in turn will contact the nearest servicestation and will send a suitable person to resolve the issue, thus saving theconsumer from the burdens of contacting the service center and saving his/hertime. The keyword in Internet of things is “things” , herethings include people and animals whichmeans that in future even if the people might be connected to object likehealth equipment’s or household appliances .
IoT describes a system wherein items in the physical world and sensorswithin or attached to these items are connected to the internet via a wirelessor wired internet connection . In shortthe Internet of things will connect both inanimate and living things , usesensors for data collection, then identify track and communicate with objectsover IP network . Impacts of Internet of things will be:- Platforms: The things will get increasingly expensive as comparedto now as the will have to be fitted with multiple sensors to monitor changesand collect data .
Applications of a particular “thing” will multiply. Standards and Ecosystems: IoT devices will spread widely, because of this newecosystems will emerge and there will be commercial and technical battlesbetween these ecosystem .These ecosystems will dominate the areas such as thesmart home, smart city and health care. Event Streaming Process: Some IoT applications will generate extremely highdata that must be analysed in real time .
Systems creating tens of thousands ofdata and event per second will be common and millions of events per second canoccur in telecom industry due to this sharing of transferring of data Operating Systems: Today there are wide range of operating system outhere like android, ios , windows , linux etc but there will be more Operatingsystems like these that would be designed for specific purposes. Processors and Architecture: Deep technical skills will be requiredfor designing devices within understanding like processors that may handlemultiple specific and filed oriented tasks Section IVSmart City Concept and Services FIGURE 2.Internet of things Smart City The IoT vision can become the building block torealize a unified urban-scale ICT platform, thus unleashing the potential ofthe Smart City vision 4,5.By 2050 seventy percent of the world’s populationwould be living in cities covering less than two percent of the earth’ssurface, the cities have never been so challenged and the trend continues togrow ,this raises many issues like pollution , infrastructure access , trafficcongestion, mobility , safety, healthcare are few examples. The development andcombination of new technologies such as Internet of things and artificialintelligence offer a solution to Smart City. Smart Cities are hybrid connected cities,technologically equipped to improve the lives of the residents’ .
This sectionoverview some of the services that are of potential interest in context toSmart City that might be enabled by an IoT prototype. Listed below are few ofthese services. Waste Management: Waste management is one of the major issues in moderncities because of two factors, which are the storage of garbage in landfillsand the service cost. Use of intelligent waste containers, can reduce the wastecollection and improve recycling quality as these containers would detect thelevel of load and allow for optimization of the recycling. Traffic Congestion: Today we already have camera-based traffic monitoringsystem, but in near future traffic monitoring can be done by using the sensingcapabilities and GPS installed on modern vehicles 6.The traffic informationwill be of great importance for city authorities to discipline traffic and alsofor the citizens to plan in advance the best available route to reach thedestination.
Smart Parking: It is based on intelligent displays and road sensorsthat direct motorists along the best path for parking, as it help in locatingparking slot faster which saves the citizen’s time and also emit less carbonmono-oxide into the atmosphere .Furthermore using technologies, such as RadioFrequency Identifiers (RFID) of Near Field Communication (NFC), it is possibleto provide reserved slots for residents or disabled with the help of anelectronic verification system of parking. Automation of Public Buildings: By monitoring the energy consumption ofthe environment in public buildings such as schools, museums, offices with thehelp of various sensors and actuators that control temperature, humidity andlight, it is possible to enhance comfort level and reduce wastage of energy.Smart Lighting: Optimization of street lighting is animportant feature of IoT Smart City concept .This service can optimize thestreet light intensity according to time of day, presence of people and weathercondition with use of sensors like proximity sensor .In addition street lightcontrollers can be easily installed with fault detection system.
Section VConclusion Is the future of Internet of Things really bright?IoT is a very simple concept in which we allowmachines and instruments to talk to each other in order to provide real timedata relevant to modernize living style and make our surrounding smatter. By2020 there would be approximately 50 billion IoT devices or maybe more. TheseIoT devices will definitely make our lives better and our smartphones will bethe center hub to control these devices.