The progressive era which began in the early 20th century and lasted until the first world war represented an era of economic and social reform. At that time, America was rapidly changing from agricultural to the urban society. The big changeover of the industrialization caused the economic convert. Large companies and trusts fleetly rise and accumulation of great power that took control of the industry. The sharp increase in economic activity was mainly due to the practice of cheap labor led by industrialized and major corporations. This explosion of business has led to the emergence of big companies and trusts that control their own industries by taking over smaller companies and monopolizing the market. Progressives want the government to regulate an industry, not to have it. Their goal is to help those without wealth or power.In 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act that is illegal to eliminate competition by trust and monopoly. The government rarely used this act to stop business, but actually against unions, to stop the strike because they thought it hurt trade. After this act, there was another act named Clayton Antitrust Act that fixed the Sherman antitrust law and banning certain acts of competition, also strike unions are no longer seen as a breach of antitrust law.In addition, Congress passed the federal reserve act in 1913 that twelve regional banks have been created to provide loans at discount rates. To relax and tighten credit at the national level. This was the first central banking system since 1836, funding for future wars without the need to apply specifically to Congress for war funds. High tariffs have increased the price of goods. The Republican party raises tariffs to protect American businesses from foreign competition in 1890. Americans are calling for lower tariffs and in the next few years to vote for more Democrats to enter Congress. So in 1913, the tariff was lowered which greatly reduced the cost of imports. The lost revenue will be replaced by income taxes implemented by the 16th amendment. In the era of progress, some great artists including Thomas Eakins, Thomas Eakins, Mary Cassatt, Whistler and Grant Wood were leaders of American art. In the age of progress, artists began to pay more attention to the realities of life. This new form of art is exactly named as realism. Realism and naturalism have some ideas, which are the art inspired by the principles and methods of natural science, but they have some differences. Realism shows the truth of life and also shows how life is. The music of Progressive derived from European influences, such as one of the composers, Scott Joplin. He contacts with the ragtime music and created his own jazz music.As with painting, many aspects of American music come from Europe. On music, some of the popular European models were paying attention to people’s music. Americans also separated from ancient English ways to create songs to conform to the new ideas of society. In the 1920s, there was a huge explosion in the American art world, centered in Harlem. Since the turn of the century, the innovation of African American writers, artists and musicians have been gathered and work together to develop new ideas in Manhattan community. In a few years after the first world war, they got the attention of the whole country. All in all, in the late 19th century, both American society and the U.S. national governance structure were on a critical fork. For Americans at the time, it was a time of hope and a time of problems and challenges. Faced with these problems and challenges posed by economic and social change, most Americans are beginning to change their traditional beliefs about the good society and government. Starting in the 1890s, reformers centered on the urban middle class started a campaign to reform the political system and government in the city. Then the reform was pushed to the state, to the union, and in 1912 a national debate on reform was called “progressivism”. The reform of the progressive era changed America’s national governance structure and changed American society. To a certain extent, without progressive reform, it is impossible to see today’s prosperous and powerful America responsible for its citizens. In addition, the progressive era reform experience and lesson, not only has the vital importance in the history of the United States, and for those who are going through a similar economic and social change, is also a rich enlightenment.