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The main causes for World War I are bountiful and important to consider. One of the most important causes was that there was a mutual alliance set across Europe so if a country got attacked, countries would have to get involved in the situation as well which turns it into a bigger situation which forced many of the “powerhouses” to get involved. In this case, when the assassin from Serbia  killed the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, other countries had to comply with their alliances, which brought Britain, France, Russia, and Germany just to name a few. More countries, even if not willing, had to get involved. For example, when Austria Hungary ordered to attack Serbia, Germany came into the war by vowing to protect Austria Hungary. In response, Serbia was defended by Russia, one of the most powerful nations in the world at that time era.Another main cause of the First World War was imperialism. Imperialism was going on and heavily impacting countries all around the world. This means that there is an unequal relationship, forced on other countries and peoples. The results of imperialism is the complete domination and subordination of economics, culture, and territories. To give examples, Germany was an ambitious and young nation. The German states had become a united country only in 1871 as a result of victorious wars against Austria and France. Soon enough. the German empire, had emerged as one of the most powerful nations on Europe. Quickly rising in power, Germany was competing with powerful neighbors for trade, influence, and colonies overseas.Great Britain and France, the leading colonial powers, ruled much of the world beyond the shores of Europe. They each possessed a far-flung network of colonies, a source of immense riches.Germany, a latecomer to the “race” for the oversea possession had only a few colonies in Africa and in the Pacific. Striving to be recognized, Germany fought to extend its influence in the few remaining areas of the world that were not under French or British control.Similar to imperialism, militarism was ongoing in the beginning of the 20th century, so tensions continually began to rise among nations in Europe. The Germans already had a big army equipped with the latest weapons. In order to compete for more colonies, the German leaders decided that they also needed a strong and unstoppable navy that could challenge Britain’s centuries old command of the seas. German shipyards rushed to build a fleet powerful enough to engage Britain’s Royal Navy in battle. Britain leaders responded by also launching an ambitious shipbuilding program of their own. “So along with the rivalry to grab oversea colonies, Britain and Germany engaged in a costly competition to build bigger and better warships.”(The War to end all Wars, page 11)Also, much of the origin of the war was about the Slavic people in Bosnia for they didn’t want to be a part of Austria Hungary. The spark of the great war happened because of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria Hungary. Serbian nationalists had turned their attention back to the idea of “liberating” the South Slavs of Austria-Hungary. Believing that the Serbs’ cause would be served by the death of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph, and learning that the Archduke was about to visit Bosnia on a tour of military inspection, Apis plotted the archduke’s assassination. The Serbian prime minister and an enemy of Apis  heard of the plot and warned the Austrian government of it, but his message was too cautiously worded to be clearly understood.To elaborate on the assassination, at 11:15 am on June 28, 1914, in the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead by a Bosnian Serb, Gavrilo Princip. The chief of the Austro-Hungarian general staff, Franz, Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, and the foreign minister, Leopold Graf von Berchtold saw this crime of assassination as an incident to humiliate Serbia. They also suspected the killing of the archduke was to enhance Austria-Hungary’s prestige and power in the Balkans. Conrad had already been assured by William II of Germany’s support if Austria Hungary should start a war against Serbia. After the assassination of the archduke, the war was truly about to begin and many researchers say that it was the spark leading into World War 1.The immediate result that came after World War I were the death casualties. According to a website titled “First World War Casualties”, the casualties suffered by the participants in World War I dwarfed many previous wars: around 8,500,000 soldiers died as a result of wounds and/or disease not to mention the missing or the injured. It also lists how many soldiers have died from each country. America itself did not have as many casualties as Russia, France, or Great Britain. Furthermore, the greatest number of casualties and wounds were inflicted by artillery, followed by handheld firearms, and then by the infamous poison gas started by the Germans. War and weaponry were increasingly improved from 1914 and produced casualties quickly and efficiently. With the increase of more dangerous weapons, both the triple alliance(Germany, Austria Hungary, etc) and the triple entente(U.S., Russia, France, etc.) produced many fallen soldiers. The heaviest loss of lives from a single day was in the trenches on July 1, 1916, during the Battle of the Somme, when the British Army suffered 57,470 casualties. Found in Britannica, Winston Churchill once described the battles of the Somme and Verdun as being waged between double or triple walls of cannons fed by mountains of shells and bodies. The battles of the Somme and Verdun are trench warfare which precisely means that it is a warfare typically meant to attack the opposing side while in trenches. In those battles, the soldiers fought in this dangerous and tiring position until battered and “worn down”. Many men were lost or found to be dead in the battles so there is a French monument at Verdun for the 150,000 missing dead who are assumed to be buried within the trenches. The results of World War I helped lead into World War II, which broke out in 1939. After the first world war, the Allies forced Germany sign the Treaty of Versailles. In the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, the victorious countries which include Great Britain, France, U.S., ect. imposed clear and harsh territorial, military, and economic provisions only on defeated Germany, not on any other triple alliance country. The main reason Germany was so mad, therefore starting World War II by the Nazis and Hitler, was that these requirements did not apply to anyone else besides Germany and that the requirements were not fair. Germans received many hardships from the loss of the great war and as a result, they suffered. To the west, Germany forcefully lost Alsace-Lorraine to France and Belgium gained more German territory; Eupen and Malmedy. Furthermore, the industrial Saar region was placed under the administration of the League of Nations for 15 years, and Denmark received Northern Schleswig. Finally, as the last insult to the Germans, the Rhineland was demilitarized and no German military forces or fortifications were permitted there. To add on to the loss of German territories, Poland received parts of West Prussia and Silesia and Czechoslovakia received the Hultschin district from Germany. The large German city of Danzig became a city under the protection of the League of Nations and stolen from the Germans. Memel, a piece of territory along the Baltic Sea, was ultimately placed out of German control. Even more so, outside of Europe, Germany lost all it’s territories in Africa and other areas. All together, Germany had to forfeit 13 percent of its European land area and one-tenth of the population which angered and hurt the pride of the remaining people in Germany. The Allies were “rubbing salt in a wound” which is enough to make the Germans vengeful and for Hitler to rise in power. To prevent another war like World War I and II, we have established a system to help the ones in need, even if we fought against them in the war. Nowadays, we help instead of destroy because we have learned our mistake from World War 1. Causes in the great war such as imperialism and the assassination of the archduke were necessities in this preventive war. Results have contributed to making more beneficial technologies. From the causes and effects of World War 1, there is much to learn about and from.

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