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The aim of
Kelly-Ann’s treatment is to reduce the risk of reoffending and increase the
chance of rehabilitation through anger management and group relationship
building skills. The RNR and GLM are used to help give Kelly Ann the best
treatment possible to reduce any recidivism. Along with these models CBT would
be recommended for Kelly-Ann to allow for one to one time with a psychologist
who shows they care for her rather than just “wanting to tick a box on a
sheet”.

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
can be as effective as medication in treating individuals. CBT was chosen for
Kelly-Ann as it can teach individuals new useful and practical strategies that
can be used in everyday life even after the treatment has finished (NHS 2017).
Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) could also be used to provide treatment for
Kelly-Ann and help with her emotion regulation. However, CBT would be
recommended first due to Kelly-Ann’s past experiences and DBT has individual
and group sessions which may not be beneficial for Kelly-Ann at the beginning
of her treatment. DBT is usually a treatment used when other methods of
treatment have been unsuccessful so therefore it could be used in the future if
progress is not made using CBT.  CBT
targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving skills that
are associated with aggressive behaviour (Dodge 2003). As Kelly Ann has
had a negative experience before with psychologists CBT would be the most
beneficial form of treatment due to how quickly CBT can be completed compared
to other talking therapies (Gaudiano 2008). However, even though this would be
beneficial for Kelly-Ann one of the biggest challenges could be getting her to
commit to the process and co-operate with a therapist who is willing to help.

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CBT has been argued to be effective at reducing anger
problems and may be most beneficial for Kelly-Ann as CBT may be most effective
for individuals with issues regarding anger expression (Del Vecchio &
O’Leary 2004; Saini, 2009). Anger Management can be effectively treated with
CBT. There have been many scientific studies demonstrating that anger problems
can be treated using different CBT techniques such as cognitive Therapy,
Relaxation training, Problem Solving, Communication Skills, and combining these
techniques have all been shown to reduce anger problems (Fuller, 2015). The
goal of anger management is to reduce both emotional feelings and physiological
arousal that anger causes (APA 2017). Anger management was recommended for
Kelly-Ann due to her violent outbursts and the nature of her offence. It is
hoped that anger management along side CBT and relationship building skills
that Kelly Ann is less likely to reoffend as she will have useful coping
mechanisms to help her in future. At first independent anger management
sessions would be recommended for Kelly-Ann to familiarise herself with this
therapy. Then later group sessions could be beneficial for her as she would be
able to meet new individuals out with her normal social circle and develop
social relationships with after attending a specific programme based on
developing relationship building skills and interpersonal skills. Research has
shown that by integrating emotion regulation techniques with CBT it can help
reduce emotion dysfunction and improve anger management (Afshari et al, 2014).

Along with anger management, relationship building skills is
also recommended for Kelly-Ann. The only relationships Kelly-Ann has are very
limited as they are with her mother or Mrs Johnson. Research has found that
childhood attachment difficulties is one factor linked to identifying
individuals most likely to commit violent behaviour, either towards themselves
or others (Ward, Hudson, & Marshall, 1996). For Kelly-Ann to develop more
healthy relationships and attachments sessions with a therapist must be
established and regular to help provide life skills. Combating Kelly-Ann’s
insecure attachments, amending these relationships but also creating new
relationships would be beneficial for Kelly-Ann. Research has shown that
children who have attachment issues can benefit from therapy as they can learn
what healthy relationships are, explore ways to form constructive bonds with
caregivers, and develop ways to cope with the symptoms that resulted from their
early attachment issues (Surcinelli, Rossi, Montebarocci, & Baldaro, 2010).
This would be useful for Kelly-Ann as the last stable relationship she has seen
was her mother and father at age 3.

The RNR model (Andrews, Bonta & Hoge, 1990) was chosen
for Kelly-Ann as it assesses the risk and needs of the offender which
drives the selection of an appropriate response program and aims to reduce
recidivism. The risk,
needs and responsivity model was used in Kelly-Ann’s case as it would asses her
needs and drive the selection of an appropriate response programme based on
these needs. The model assesses offender behaviour and driven treatment by
using 3 principles. The first principal is the risk principal which consist of
2 parts – risk level of the offender and intensity of the treatment. The intensity of treatment should
mirror the level of risk. Kelly-Ann was classed as a high-risk offender
due to her offence, her past and her lack of coping mechanisms. Research has
shown through testing each of the RNR principles that programs which treated
high risk offenders demonstrated reductions in recidivism (Andrews &
Dowden, 2006). Treatment from the RNR is based on the criminogenic needs and social
needs of an individual. Kelly-Ann’s biggest risk is her insecure attachments
and lack of relationships. Therefore, for her needs to be met sessions with a
therapist would be beneficial. Kelly-Ann’s
insecure attachment is likely to increase offending therefore for
treatment to be effective and have a positive impact on Kelly Ann treatment
sessions should be made with her mother and Mrs Johnson present as it has been found that rebuilding
ties with family, friends and the wider community and developing new
relationships are important aspects of reducing recidivism (McNeil & Weaver
2010). Family based therapy could be
useful in helping to rekindle the relationship between Kelly-Ann and her mother
as Kelly-Ann thinks very highly of her mother. Finally, we have the responsivity principle. General responsivity
refers to the fact that cognitive social learning interventions are the most
effective way to teach people new behaviours regardless of the type of
behaviour. Research has shown that interventions which correctly follow the RNR
are shown to have significant reductions in recidivism (Andrews & Bonta,
2010). Therefore, the RNR model would be the most appropriate response to
reduce recidivism in Kelly-Ann.

Using the GLM model alongside CBT to provide emotion
treatment and anger management classes would be very beneficial for Kelly-Ann
as it would help to provide her with coping mechanisms that she can use in
everyday life. The GLM is a strength based theory which aims to give clients
the skills necessary to lead a good life which is meaningful and socially
acceptable. The GLM model can be used in Kelly-Ann’s case
as research has shown that the GLM can enhance client engagement in treatment
and reduce dropout rates from programs (Simons, McCullar, & Tyler, 2006),
which in turn would be beneficial and can be associated with higher recidivism
rates (Olver, Stockdale, & Wormith, 2011). According to the GLM, people
offend because they are attempting to secure some kind of valued outcome in
their life. It states that criminal behaviour represents an unstable attempt to
meet life values. Therefore, for rehabilitation to be successful it should equip
offenders with the knowledge, skills, opportunities, and resources necessary to
satisfy their life values in ways that don’t harm others (Ward and Stewart,
2003). One of the aims of the GLM is the promotion of primary goods, or
human needs that can help to enhance psychological wellbeing (Ward and Brown,
2004). To achieve this the GLM states that any criminogenic needs must be removed
from the offender to reduce recidivism. Regarding Kelly-Ann it can be seen that
emotion regulation along with her anger management is where treatments should
target to help equip her with the necessary skills to satisfy her life values
in ways that don’t harm others. The GLM is useful as it offers to enhance outcomes
of CBT and RNR-based treatment programmes through keeping offenders
meaningfully in treatment and in activities (Willis, Ward & Levenson, 2013)
this would be very beneficial for Kelly-Ann as she has had negative experiences
before with therapy so integrating the RNR model with the GLM model could achieve
successful results in reducing recidivism and rehabilitating Kelly-Ann. A
larger focus on new relationships and group activities would help to provide
Kelly-Ann with more opportunities to form new relationships and in time overcome
her attachment issues. 

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