The aim ofKelly-Ann’s treatment is to reduce the risk of reoffending and increase thechance of rehabilitation through anger management and group relationshipbuilding skills. The RNR and GLM are used to help give Kelly Ann the besttreatment possible to reduce any recidivism. Along with these models CBT wouldbe recommended for Kelly-Ann to allow for one to one time with a psychologistwho shows they care for her rather than just “wanting to tick a box on asheet”.Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)can be as effective as medication in treating individuals. CBT was chosen forKelly-Ann as it can teach individuals new useful and practical strategies thatcan be used in everyday life even after the treatment has finished (NHS 2017).Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) could also be used to provide treatment forKelly-Ann and help with her emotion regulation. However, CBT would berecommended first due to Kelly-Ann’s past experiences and DBT has individualand group sessions which may not be beneficial for Kelly-Ann at the beginningof her treatment.
DBT is usually a treatment used when other methods oftreatment have been unsuccessful so therefore it could be used in the future ifprogress is not made using CBT. CBTtargets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving skills thatare associated with aggressive behaviour (Dodge 2003). As Kelly Ann hashad a negative experience before with psychologists CBT would be the mostbeneficial form of treatment due to how quickly CBT can be completed comparedto other talking therapies (Gaudiano 2008).
However, even though this would bebeneficial for Kelly-Ann one of the biggest challenges could be getting her tocommit to the process and co-operate with a therapist who is willing to help. CBT has been argued to be effective at reducing angerproblems and may be most beneficial for Kelly-Ann as CBT may be most effectivefor individuals with issues regarding anger expression (Del Vecchio &O’Leary 2004; Saini, 2009). Anger Management can be effectively treated withCBT. There have been many scientific studies demonstrating that anger problemscan be treated using different CBT techniques such as cognitive Therapy,Relaxation training, Problem Solving, Communication Skills, and combining thesetechniques have all been shown to reduce anger problems (Fuller, 2015). Thegoal of anger management is to reduce both emotional feelings and physiologicalarousal that anger causes (APA 2017). Anger management was recommended forKelly-Ann due to her violent outbursts and the nature of her offence. It ishoped that anger management along side CBT and relationship building skillsthat Kelly Ann is less likely to reoffend as she will have useful copingmechanisms to help her in future.
At first independent anger managementsessions would be recommended for Kelly-Ann to familiarise herself with thistherapy. Then later group sessions could be beneficial for her as she would beable to meet new individuals out with her normal social circle and developsocial relationships with after attending a specific programme based ondeveloping relationship building skills and interpersonal skills. Research hasshown that by integrating emotion regulation techniques with CBT it can helpreduce emotion dysfunction and improve anger management (Afshari et al, 2014).Along with anger management, relationship building skills isalso recommended for Kelly-Ann. The only relationships Kelly-Ann has are verylimited as they are with her mother or Mrs Johnson. Research has found thatchildhood attachment difficulties is one factor linked to identifyingindividuals most likely to commit violent behaviour, either towards themselvesor others (Ward, Hudson, & Marshall, 1996). For Kelly-Ann to develop morehealthy relationships and attachments sessions with a therapist must beestablished and regular to help provide life skills.
Combating Kelly-Ann’sinsecure attachments, amending these relationships but also creating newrelationships would be beneficial for Kelly-Ann. Research has shown thatchildren who have attachment issues can benefit from therapy as they can learnwhat healthy relationships are, explore ways to form constructive bonds withcaregivers, and develop ways to cope with the symptoms that resulted from theirearly attachment issues (Surcinelli, Rossi, Montebarocci, & Baldaro, 2010).This would be useful for Kelly-Ann as the last stable relationship she has seenwas her mother and father at age 3.
The RNR model (Andrews, Bonta & Hoge, 1990) was chosenfor Kelly-Ann as it assesses the risk and needs of the offender whichdrives the selection of an appropriate response program and aims to reducerecidivism. The risk,needs and responsivity model was used in Kelly-Ann’s case as it would asses herneeds and drive the selection of an appropriate response programme based onthese needs. The model assesses offender behaviour and driven treatment byusing 3 principles. The first principal is the risk principal which consist of2 parts – risk level of the offender and intensity of the treatment. The intensity of treatment shouldmirror the level of risk. Kelly-Ann was classed as a high-risk offenderdue to her offence, her past and her lack of coping mechanisms. Research hasshown through testing each of the RNR principles that programs which treatedhigh risk offenders demonstrated reductions in recidivism (Andrews , 2006). Treatment from the RNR is based on the criminogenic needs and socialneeds of an individual.
Kelly-Ann’s biggest risk is her insecure attachmentsand lack of relationships. Therefore, for her needs to be met sessions with atherapist would be beneficial. Kelly-Ann’sinsecure attachment is likely to increase offending therefore fortreatment to be effective and have a positive impact on Kelly Ann treatmentsessions should be made with her mother and Mrs Johnson present as it has been found that rebuildingties with family, friends and the wider community and developing newrelationships are important aspects of reducing recidivism (McNeil & Weaver2010). Family based therapy could beuseful in helping to rekindle the relationship between Kelly-Ann and her motheras Kelly-Ann thinks very highly of her mother. Finally, we have the responsivity principle.
General responsivityrefers to the fact that cognitive social learning interventions are the mosteffective way to teach people new behaviours regardless of the type ofbehaviour. Research has shown that interventions which correctly follow the RNRare shown to have significant reductions in recidivism (Andrews & Bonta,2010). Therefore, the RNR model would be the most appropriate response toreduce recidivism in Kelly-Ann. Using the GLM model alongside CBT to provide emotiontreatment and anger management classes would be very beneficial for Kelly-Annas it would help to provide her with coping mechanisms that she can use ineveryday life. The GLM is a strength based theory which aims to give clientsthe skills necessary to lead a good life which is meaningful and sociallyacceptable. The GLM model can be used in Kelly-Ann’s caseas research has shown that the GLM can enhance client engagement in treatmentand reduce dropout rates from programs (Simons, McCullar, & Tyler, 2006),which in turn would be beneficial and can be associated with higher recidivismrates (Olver, Stockdale, & Wormith, 2011). According to the GLM, peopleoffend because they are attempting to secure some kind of valued outcome intheir life. It states that criminal behaviour represents an unstable attempt tomeet life values.
Therefore, for rehabilitation to be successful it should equipoffenders with the knowledge, skills, opportunities, and resources necessary tosatisfy their life values in ways that don’t harm others (Ward and Stewart,2003). One of the aims of the GLM is the promotion of primary goods, orhuman needs that can help to enhance psychological wellbeing (Ward and Brown,2004). To achieve this the GLM states that any criminogenic needs must be removedfrom the offender to reduce recidivism.
Regarding Kelly-Ann it can be seen thatemotion regulation along with her anger management is where treatments shouldtarget to help equip her with the necessary skills to satisfy her life valuesin ways that don’t harm others. The GLM is useful as it offers to enhance outcomesof CBT and RNR-based treatment programmes through keeping offendersmeaningfully in treatment and in activities (Willis, Ward & Levenson, 2013)this would be very beneficial for Kelly-Ann as she has had negative experiencesbefore with therapy so integrating the RNR model with the GLM model could achievesuccessful results in reducing recidivism and rehabilitating Kelly-Ann. Alarger focus on new relationships and group activities would help to provideKelly-Ann with more opportunities to form new relationships and in time overcomeher attachment issues.