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The war of 1812 was not very memorable for the USA. One could argue that this was the first USA military loss. During the 19th century, Great Britain had a conflict with Napoleon Bonaparte’s France’s military leader. Amid this conflict, both Great Britain and France created methods of preventing each other from receiving supplies for war by obstructing the US from trading with the other country. In the year 1807, Great Britain passed new laws in council, which made it necessary for neutral countries to acquire consent from the required jurisdiction, to make transactions with French colonies or France. The British also practiced impressment, which was the act of removing seamen from passing vessels and demanded them to serve in the British Royal Navy. These are 2 of the factors that infuriated and aggravated Americans. The result of this was when Thomas Jefferson created the Embargo Act, which restricted American vessels from making transactions foreign seaports. 2 years later in 1809, the US Congress annulled Thomas Jefferson’s despised act. This was due to the fact that it caused more harm to the US rather than Britain or France because they were the Americans top trade partners. The US Congress then created the Non-Intercourse Act in substitution of the Embargo Act, where the US particularly could not trade with France or Britain. This was considered ineffectual by Congress as well, and soon after was changed into the ‘Macon’s Bill number 2’. This bill declared that if either Britain or France ended their trade restraints opposing the US, that the US would stop trades with the opposite country that did not end their trade restraints. Napoleon of France soon after hinted he would halt the restraints. Several months later the president of the United States, James Madison requested that all trade ports with Britain would be closed that November. During this period of time, the US had elected new members of Congress, Henny Clay, and John C. Calhoun. They began to push for war. The US government did this due to the fact that the British encouraged Aboriginal peoples to rebel against the Americans and the inequality of British laws. At the end of the war, Americans came back as the losers of the war. The three reasons why the Americans were not successful in their quest to annex Canada and defeat the British, were because they had poor leadership, lack of unity within the country itself and lack of Aboriginal allies.One of the reasons that the US was unsuccessful in their quest to annex Canada was on account of poor leadership. A major example of their poor leadership during the war was the Detroit Surrender. An American General named William Hull was put in charge of the Detroit fort for the US army. Hull believed that the Canadians would easily join forces with the Americans as they tried to seize British owned land. He once told Canadians “You will be emancipated from tyranny and oppression and restored to the dignified station of free men”(William Hull). To reiterate what he has said, he was saying that Canadians were not free and that the Americans would give them freedom by conquering Canada. “Hull, a 59-year-old veteran of the American Revolution, had lost hope of defending the settlement after seeing the large English and Indian force gathering outside Detroit’s walls. The general was also preoccupied with the presence of his daughter and grandchildren inside the fort.” (Detroit surrenders without a fight). William Hull abdicated his responsibility to defend fort Detroit and he surrenders it without a fight. Due to the fact that he thought he was outnumbered by British troops surrounding his base. The general was more concerned about his own well being and the well being of his family rather than sacrificing himself in the battle for his country to win the war. Hull’s army had 2,000 men, the majority of them were militiamen, the leader of the British army that took over the fort of Detroit Isaac Brock released the militiamen and granted them the ability to return to their homes. (Detroit surrenders with a fight). The British took the true American soldiers to prisons in Canada. After the capture of the Fort, Michigan was run by Great Britain. The loss of the Fort seriously crippled America’s confidence. The surrender also greatly helped Britain due to the fact that they were allies with the Aboriginal people. The Chief of the Shawnee tribe Tecumseh was able to take advantage of this, as he gained the opportunity to increase his attacks on the American troops in the Michigan area which gave Britain an upper hand. This event in the war played a major role in why the Americans faced defeat in The War of 1812.Another major factor that played a key role in the US’s defeat in The War of 1812 was the lack of unity within the country itself. Before the Americans declared on Britain and attempted to conquer Canada to get them on their side they had to determine their reasons for war. The Congressmen from the Northern and Eastern states did not want to go to war with Great Britain due to the fact that they knew their coastal states would be exposed to the substantial  environmental and physical damages because the fighting would be done near or in their states; this is relevant because then they would have to put a lot of money into rebuilding and fixing all the damages(War Hawks and the War of 1812). However, the southern states believed that the 7-year war between France and Britain was a viable reason to attempt to conquer Canada and fight Britain. They believed this because they knew that Britain could not give their all in a war that was on the fronts of Britain and on the Fronts of Canada. The southern states also believed that the British violating the US maritime rights was another reason to go to war. In the same instance the North Western states were feeling the tension from the Aboriginal peoples in Canada, who had established an alliance who were put together to impede any white settlers who were attempting usurp. The southern states speculated that the British were funding this opposition which gave them more reason to want to declare war against the British (War Hawks and the War of 1812). The vote for war “was the smallest margin for a declaration of war vote, 79-49 in the house and 19-13 in the Senate” (The war of 1812). This stat shows that the nation was really divided and that not everyone was together on the decision to go to war, and that they should have put more thought into their judgment, and the outcome may have been better for them. “Many nations have gone to war in pure gaiety of heart, but perhaps the United States was the first to force themselves into a war they dreaded, in the hope that the war itself might create the spirit they lacked” (Henry Adams, ). This direct quote is from a historian named Henry Adam, Henry is speaking about how the whole Country was not united in fighting this war however they forced themselves into a war they did not need to be in. If the US took into factor that the whole country was not united as a whole and not everyone was willing to go to war, this would have benefited the country greatly. Lacking unity was one of the major factors that caused the US to lose this war.Allies were another vital flaw in why the US lost the war of 1812. Unlike the British the US did not spend time trying to make allies with the aboriginal peoples, they rather attempted to expand westward into Aboriginal territories. At the beginning of the war, over 400,000 settlers were moving into the aboriginals land west of the original 13 colonies (The war of 1812). A large amount of settlers that moved west into these territories outnumbered the aboriginal groups severely. Some of the Aboriginals started to assimilate into the white culture, and some start resisted the culture. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa led the resistance, Tenskwatawa was a prophet. Himself and his brother encouraged Indians to relinquish the ways of the whites, through getting rid of alcohol and manufactured consumer goods (The war of 1812). Tecumseh was more of a belligerent leader always trying to withstand white settlement, “Sell a country, why not sell the air, the great sea, as well the earth? Did not the great spirit make them all for the use of his children(Tecumseh). This quote proves that Tecumseh was against white settlements as he tried to restraint them from over taking his settlement. If the US was able to gain allies with the aboriginal peoples they would have been able to attack Canada at different angles and could have had allies who knew the North territories better, which could have majorly impacted the war. However since the Aboriginal peoples felt that the Americans were not trying to positively influence their culture and they were rather trying to get them to assimilate, they joined forces with Britain to win The War of 1812. From Poor Leadership to Lack of Unity to Lack of Aboriginal allies, it seems as the factors go to show why the Americans lost The War of 1812. If the US were to have changed their War plans and had united as a nation, and put effort into leading and created allies like they have done today the world would be very different then it is right now. The Surrender Of Fort Detroit, The debates between Northern states & Lower states and the underestimation of the Aboriginals are all factors in why the US lost the war of 1812.

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