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Literature (Ghodeswar, 2008) defines the brand in terms of perceptible and
imperceptible features, designed to construct and configure an identity and
awareness of the brand, so that the reputation of an organization, product, or
person can be built. The same literature presents the manifestations of the
distinctive features of the brand as – trademarks, symbols, name, logo, and
slogans; features that combine to make up the face of the brand, thus helping
the company standout from rivals.  

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One of the theoretical
perspectives from which the brand can be observed, is as identities. The notion
of brand identity is a complex, multidimensional construct, which has been the
study of various academics (Aaker, 1996; Kapferer, 2008; Silveira et al, 2013; Buil, 2016; Kornum et al, 2017). Despite
some differences regarding its mechanisms, the general paradigm is somewhat the
same – that brand identity is in essence a unique set of brand associations
that entail a promise to the consumers (Ghodeswar,
2008). Roy & Banerjee (2008) defining the brand as everything
that the company wants its consumers to associate it with. Kapferer,
(2008) considers the brand identity to be the cornerstone and
DNA of the brand, radiating  the brands
core values. These values may according to (Buil,
2016) manifest as: vision, culture, personality,
positioning, presentation, and relationships – signs of differentiation and
recognition, representable of what gives the company meaning. Hence, are to be
regarded as the key drivers for any brand building efforts the company
undertakes (Petek & Konecnik ,2012).  

multidisciplinary nature of brand identity has led to a wide range of
conceptual frameworks attempting to capture its essence; amongst those is Aaker’s
(1996) ‘Brand identity structure model'(see Appendix: A) that
conceptualizes the brand identity as comprising a core and an extended identity.
The core identity encapsulates the central, timeless essence of the brand;
whilst the extended identity captures the various brand identity elements that
complete the brand (Aaker’s 1996; Ghodeswar, 2008


Core Identity

The core identity is
central to the meaning and success of the brand, reflecting what the brand
stands for, and can in many ways, be seen as the soul of the company (Ghodeswar, 2008). Its timeless nature
makes it resistance to change, remaining constant when a brand moves to new
products or markets.The 

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