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The cell process that I hypothesize that will be affected by
my mutations would be transcription regulation

   What is the gene?

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Gene type: protein coding

Gene description: putative DNA-binding transcriptional

Regulates the transcription of the frlr operon.

 Involved in the
utilization of fructoselysine and psicoselysine.

Pathway: fructoselysine degradation

This protein regulates the pathway fructoselysine

Part of Carbohydrate metabolism.

DNA-Binding-Region is H-T-H motif.


Conserved-Region is HTH gntR-type.


The gntR-type HTH domain is a DNA-binding – winged
helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain of about 60-70 residues present in
transcriptional regulators of the gntR family.

In proteins, the helix-turn-helix (HTH) is a major
structural motif which can bind DNA.

HTH can be seen in proteins that regulate gene expression.

HTH has two ? helices joined by a short strand of amino


Escherichia coli is seen to grow on fructoselysine.

Fructoselysine is an Amadori adduct.

It breaks down into furosine on acid-catalysed hydrolysis.

E. coli breaks fructoselysin down using the enzymes

Next fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase into glucose
6-phosphate and lysine.

Fructosamines (non-enzymatic) are the products of glucose.



Caused by fructoselysine.

Frlr Makes part of the frl operon. The frlr operon includes
FrlA, FrlB, FrlC and FrlD


Biological Process of the Frlr is transcription,
DNA-templated, regulation of transcription,

Molecular Function of Frlr is DNA binding, transcription
factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding

Cellular Component: Located in the cytosol.

Name of article: “Adaptive immunity increases the pace and predictability of
evolutionary change in commensal gut bacteria”

frlR codes for a predicted regulator of the fructoselysine

The regulator of the fructoselysine operon is responsible
for the metabolism of fructosamines.

The mutations identified of frlr in the article may lead to
inactivation of frlR.

This causes the constitutive expression of the frl operon.
Which means that the it is constantly active.

This aviation would be beneficial to E. coli in the gut when
nutrients are very low. 

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