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impact political violence on the direction, the nature and the involvement of
state power on the wider society, culture and legislative conditions. national
security and the deconstruction of civil liberties and the damage to the rule.

Terrorism, is a psychological tactic that seeks
to spread fear- inducing effects in a
target group wider the immediate audience through the actual or feared
indiscriminate targeting of non-combatants victims. Tosini wrote in ‘Understanding the terrorist threat’ highlighting
four conceptual objectives of the
terrorist as, demonstrative and attention, intimidatory
and influence, coercive and political, and finally Propaganda driven. Aimed at bought the greater population,
public and state powers, it is adapted as
an extreme form violence. Robinson L ‘What
terrorist wants’ (2010) conceptualized typical elements that make this form of violence distinct to any other. It
is political (A communication, that aims to influence behaviour), violent
(violent based threat in order to extend the political, while maintaining and
acquiring new levels of power and authority), symbolic (they are religious or
meaning full, base with an ideology), performed by a sub-state group
(attempting to disrupt the powerful and show others that it is possible),
Victims are not the intended audience (focus is on the ethe extended
population the greater the population viewing the greater the psychological
effect) and Civilians are targeted (this is legitimately where it differs from
WAR) form of violence used to generate a state of terror.

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so far as terrorist activity are
performativity notion of expression. weather
the incentive is historical or politically based, it is or can be defined by
the actors involved. Identification of two forms of distinct terrorist identity
use indiscriminate violence towards civilians. Distinguishing
between violence of the states and
violence of sub state groups or
individuals. The former is classed as ‘state terror’ and the latter Terrorism
(Wilkinson 2001). Within the ‘The war on terror’ lines between the two are
actively blurring, where it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish
the ‘good’ and ‘evil’. In the formation of the narratives within media outlets,
defining ‘them and us’. These forms of images are distinct in strengthening the
ideologies and false narrative that insinuate guilt by association of the political
and legally created ‘suspect community’. 

Suspect communities’ manifestation and experiences in the UK of the
Irish community in the 1970s to 1990s, and of the Muslim communities today,
were brought into fruitful comparison. Racism, xenophobia,
alienation, discrimination, violence, Fear, killings, dislocation, restrictive
movement, deconstruction of basic right and liberties, ‘Patrick Hilllyard first
application of the term “suspect community” to the Irish in Britain in the era
of the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA) and its more recent application to
Muslims in the global war on terror’ (Breen- Symth, 2013). Pantazis and
Pemberton argue that Muslims have replaced the Irish as the ‘suspect community’
in contemporary Britain and America. They define suspect community as ‘a
sub-group of the population that is singled out for state attention as being
‘problematic’. Specifically in terms of
policing, individuals may be targeted, not necessarily as a result of suspected
wrongdoing, but simply because of their
presumed membership in the group. Race, ethnicity, religion, class, gender, language,
accent, dress, political ideology or any combination of these factors may serve
to delineate the sub-groups
characteristics (Pantazis and Simon 2009). Suspect
community is not conceived of as a legal category, but a broader ‘sociological
study of people’s experiences of the law rather than enquiry on the application
and misapplication of legal rules’. Thus, they maintain that counter-terrorism
affects social identities and produces a sense of community. Pantazis and
Pemberton envisage suspicion in the form of a pyramid, in which at the top, a
minority of formal suspects is targeted by control orders and surveillance, in
the middle informal suspects are targeted by stop and search orders, and
finally at the bottom the whole community is targeted by media, political and
civil society discourses.

from the bases of national identity, distinction to be made to sperate good and
evil. This othering of these
communities by society, basing their connection to terrorist activity through
stereotyping, dissociation, dislocation and increased rhetoric of national
identity ‘us and them’, leading to a stressing of these perceived abnormalities
of those peoples and communities perceived engagement with those who engaged in
violent attacks on the national identity. An attack on idealised version of British
and American values and symbols. This is portrayed in two ways and two extreme
opposites; the ‘madness’ and irrationality of the ‘Irish threat’ in the past,
and the evil rationality of a faith-based ideology the ‘Muslim Threat’ in the
21st century. Minority ethnic/religious communities who are perceived to be
associated with the violence are characterised as communities that might be
harbouring extremists and threatening individuals. According to Said colonization of the Arab World, provided a
rationalization of “the West” constructed “the East” as extremely different and
inferior, and therefore in need of Western intervention or “rescue”. “Orientalism” is a way of seeing that
imagines, emphasizes, exaggerates and distorts differences of Arab peoples and
cultures as compared to that of Europe and the U.S. It often involves seeing other
cultures as exotic, backward, uncivilized, and at times dangerous. Numerous studies have shown mass media to articulate
dominant social values, ideologies and developments, and that these characteristics
often lead to misrepresentation or stereotypical portrayals of minorities in
the media (Hall, 1990). The use of the media to incite a fear based control of
a population, also used a mechanism to manufacture consent, through
normalization, socialization and popularization.  The media has also played a part in fuelling
this anti-Islamic feeling. Irresponsible and unbalanced reporting has helped
foster stereotypes and misconceptions. Unfortunately, for the many people who
rely upon the media as a principle source of information, these images are all
too easy to believe. Islam is frequently portrayed in terms of fundamentalism.
The images on our televisions, be they news coverage or fictional programmes,
are too often of extremist Muslim action, without equal representation of
majority moderate Muslim followers. A link is commonly made between Islam,
terrorism and (an emotive and often sensationalised media issue in itself)
asylum seekers. Integration of the other and acceptance, without any loss of
cultural and social respect is an ideal. Points of conflict and tension run
high, when sought integration into society comes at a cost.

normalization and integration of terrorism to everyday language, creates a
narrative within the subconscious of those that identify with the ‘national
identity’, thus justifying the increase and radicalization of state and
military legislative power. Which directly attack, deconstruct and limit the
rule of law, civil and moral liberties. Normalization, as Foucault has
insisted, is one of the central instruments of the exercise of power because it
imposes homogenization on groups, and fixes differences, gaps and levels
between groups (Rabinow, 1984). Whenever national security is threatened, by
either imaginary or real suspects, the government and parliament office shared
a common self-understanding and appreciation of the role of state institutions.
The protection of the national interest or security, and of the control of
violence imagined or real. An urgent sense of risk and responsibility to the
wider population results in the passage of illiberal emergency measures
drenched in secret references to a battle between good and evil, which has been
picked up by the media. Despite differences in political and ideological
affiliation, Labour and Conservative governments, within the West, similarly
endorsed ‘extreme’ emergency measures to fight the ‘extreme’ methods of the

 Terrorism remains a central security concern
for the state and its response continues to be couched within the notion of
’emergency’ and ‘exceptionalism’, despite the apparent normalisation of
terrorism with the Terrorism Act 2000 and
Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 (Britain), Patriot Act 2001 and USA
Freedom Act 2015 (USA) and the Special Power 1922 (North Ireland) the Official secrets
ACT 1920 , through which counter-terrorism laws were made permanent, and
despite pressures for the respect of Human Rights. The Secretary-General of the
UN has described the rule of law as “a principle of governance in which all
persons, institutions and entities, public and private, including the State
itself, are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced
and independently adjudicated, and which are consistent with international
human rights norms and standards. It requires, as well, measures to ensure
adherence to the principles of supremacy of law, equality before the law,
accountability to the law, fairness in the application of the law, separation
of powers, participation in decision-making, legal certainty, avoidance of
arbitrariness and procedural and legal transparency'(
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the constitutions of much
of western nation states, situate ‘the
rule of law’ as pillar to a functioning democratic society.

sees the Rule of law trough two meanings, Firstly, ‘That no man is punishable or can lawfully be made to suffer in body or
goods except for a distinct breach of law established in an ordinary legal
manner before the ordinary courts of the land’, most be proven to have breached
of law, through the leagallity of the judicial system, innocent on till proven
guilty. Secondly ‘but that here,
everyman, whatever be his rank or condition, is subject to the ordinary law and
amendable to the jurisdiction of the ordinary tribunals’ That no one person
is above the law or oversee the law, executive power of the patriot act,
presidential power invoked, the same law same courts, Home secretary in
Northern Ireland and Britain.

Official secrets ACT 1920, Special Power 1922, the Northern Ireland act and the
Prevention of Terrorism Act 1974, The Terrorism Act 2000 and Anti-Terrorism,
Crime and Security Act 2001 (Ireland & Britain), Patriot Act 2001 and USA
Freedom Act 2015 (USA), implement extra state and public powers, in common with
other terrorism legalisation they were formed to retract power of the rule of
law and empower the state directly. Common factors within these ACTs are:
increase and expansion of surveillance capability, flexibility of arrest
warrants, integration procedures, executive orders, detention orders,
imprisonment without trail, extradition measures and these Acts are enforced as
preventive measures. Anyone suspected of involvement in ill-defined terrorist
activities, can and will be subjected to these laws. Enforcement towards a
perceived threat encompasses the wider suspect communities, mass round up of
those that fit the stereotype, stop and search, restriction on movement.

creation of a suspect community and suspect identity, the criminalization of
the people Irish and Muslims alike within these communities, people from these
communities are drawn into the legal system irrespective of statues or of
behaviour, as docile bodies which enables those in power categorization and
identification. The creation of a dual justice system ‘one rule for us, one
rule for them’

the stop terrorism these counter terrorism act, generate more support, intensify
repression, reinforced violence by state laws and state radicalization policies.

to permanent, Acts creation as part of counter terrorism are enacted as
temporary solutions to an immediate problem. Civil Authorities (Special Powers)
Act (Northern Ireland) 1922-1974 when it was replaced by the Prevention of
terrorism Act 1974 within these acts specialized trail without jury and
specialized sitting of secret court.

to violate human rights and liberties,The individual’s right to life should be
considered inviolable except in certain highly restricted and extreme
circumstances, such as the use of deadly force to protect one’s own or others’
lives. The right to liberty is considered an unalterable aspect of the human
condition. Central to this idea of liberty is the understanding that the
political or personal obligations of parents or ancestors cannot be
legitimately forced on people. The right to liberty includes personal freedom:
the private realm in which the individual is free to act, to think and to
believe, and which the government cannot legitimately invade; political
freedom: the right to participate freely in the political process, choose and
remove public officials, to be governed under a rule of law; the right to a
free flow of information and ideas, open debate and right of assembly; and
economic freedom: the right to acquire, use, transfer and dispose of private
property without unreasonable governmental interference; the right to seek
employment wherever one pleases; to change employment at will; and to engage in
any lawful economic activity. It is the right of citizens in the American
constitutional democracy to attempt to attain – “pursue” – happiness in their
own way, so long as they do not infringe upon the rights of others. People
should be treated fairly in the distribution of the benefits and burdens of
society, the correction of wrongs and injuries, and in the gathering of
information and making of decisions. All citizens have: political equality and
are not denied these rights unless by due process of law; legal equality and
should be treated as equals before the law; social equality so as there should
be no class hierarchy sanctioned by law; economic equality which tends to
strengthen political and social equality for extreme economic inequality tends
to undermine all other forms of equality and should therefore be avoided. Variety
in culture and ethnic background, race, lifestyle, and beliefs are not only
permissible but desirable and beneficial in a pluralist society. Citizens can
legitimately demand that truth-telling as refraining from lying and full
disclosure by government be the rule, since trust in the veracity of government
constitutes an essential element of the bond between governors and governed. 

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