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The material
handling systems used in manufacturing are automated guided vehicles (AGVs) or
mobile robots. Accordingly the speed of motors is controlled and
thus mobile robot is made to follow the predetermined path. To turn, one wheel
is stopped while opposite wheel continues to turn. The position of a robot is
obtained from infrared sensor data. 6

Researches done
on AGV till today, focus on the functions of AGV on moving materials and
products. They also aim at finding optimal paths for AGV, routes are designed
to avoid collision and deadlocks. The AGV prototype has been developed to create
a framework for a co-ordinate environment providing most efficient mode of
transferring many types of materials in and out of a factory or manufacture
setting .1  

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The fully
automated vehicles should have the ability to drive safe and smooth in
traffics. Path tracking, steering, obstacle avoidance and traffic laws must be
considered in the driving goals. Some ethical principles are designed to
prevent vehicle from causing harm to humans, damage to itself or other objects
or from violating traffic rules. Also the vehicle must be able to handle the
situation like if an obstacle appears in the path, it must deviate. Obstacle avoidance
has a high priority in roadways 2.

Docking is
defined as the arrival and stopping a position relative to other object. Also
it includes positioning of vehicle or equipment onboard the relative vehicle to
other object. The docking stage was started by introducing a target between the
current mobile robot position and the final target location. The design also
faces control problems like collision and deadlock along with guide-path
routing. To solve collision problems, sensors are attached with the vehicle.

The vehicle’s position can be gathered by the data obtained by the
Infra-Red (IR) sensors. A sensor controller can be used to keep the AGV on the
track. Also, additional IR sensors can be used on front and side of the vehicle
to detect obstacles and stations respectively. Unless the obstacle from the
path is removed, the AGV stops and whenever it restarts after stopping, it
recalls its operation 3.

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